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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Design of an all optical encoder using 2D photonic crystals

01 Jan 2018-
TL;DR: In this article, a new all optical 4×2 encoder is designed using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR), which is implemented using photonic crystals consisting of silicon rods in air substrate.
Abstract: A new all optical 4×2 encoder is designed using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR). The encoder which has 4 inputs and 2 outputs is implemented using photonic crystals consisting of silicon rods in air substrate. The basic operation is governed by the hexagonal shaped ring resonator which resonates at a particular wavelength. The encoder uses two such ring resonators having same resonant wavelength and 4 linear waveguides to guide the flow of light. The hexagonal shaped resonators proposed have a unique core structure in the shape of the human eye. The characteristic wavelength of the structure is obtained as 1550nm and this is verified using FDTD and PWE methods. The structure possesses several advantages over its predecessors such as simple and compact design, low input power requirement and small size. The footprint for the proposed structure is 130.6 μm2.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new set of configurations are proposed to implement simple and highly compact photonic crystal based all-optical logic AND and OR gates, which operate at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and consume very low power compared to the existing designs.
Abstract: In this paper, a new set of configurations are proposed to implement simple and highly compact photonic crystal based all-optical logic AND and OR gates. These newly designed logic gates operate at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and consume very low power compared to the existing designs. The basic all-optical logic gates are cascaded to operate as the universal gates NAND and NOR. The various parameters such as response time, contrast ratio and footprint are analyzed and optimized based on structure parameters such as radius and lattice constant. The proposed structures have very low power consumption in the range of 1 $$\upmu$$W with a footprint of 168 $$\upmu \mathrm{m}^2$$ for the AND gate and 150 $$\upmu \mathrm{m}^2$$ for the OR gate respectively. The value of contrast ratio for the proposed AND gate is 8.45 dB. The response time for OR gate is 0.4 ps and that of AND gate is 0.16 ps resulting in bitrates up to 6.25 Tbps. The contrast ratio obtained for the cascaded operation of NAND and NOR gates are 5.29 dB and 5.3 dB respectively. The band gap diagram for the proposed gates are attained using Plane Wave Expansion method and their performance is studied using Finite Difference Time Domain technique. Further, the realization of De Morgan’s law is achieved by cascading the proposed all-optical logic gates and hence verifying the truth tables for the same.

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The designed logic device contains dual nanocavity coupled ring resonator, reflector and five waveguides in a square lattice with barium titanate rods arranged in a nanostructure platform that is extremely suitable for photonic logic processors.
Abstract: In this present work, photonic crystal based ultra-high-speed encoder is proposed for optical computing applications. The designed logic device contains dual nanocavity coupled ring resonator, reflector and five waveguides in a square lattice with barium titanate rods arranged in a nanostructure platform. The encoding device is working based on the interference and resonance effect. The photonic band diagram and performance characteristics of the encoder, namely, bit rate, ON–OFF ratio and delay time are analyzed by using a plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The simulation results show that the designed encoder is capable of functioning four logic states precisely. Furthermore, the presented device has numerous advantages such as low power consumption, high data rate and a very low footprint. The response time and total chip area of the proposed encoder are 369.3 fs and 13.2 μm × 13.2 μm, respectively. Hence, this simple nano-logic platform is extremely suitable for photonic logic processors.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a two-dimensional photonic crystal based microstructure was proposed and analyzed by using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTDD) method, and the numerical results reveal that the designed micro device is capable of working accurately for different logic states.

10 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2020
TL;DR: In this article, a novel and compact structure for realizing all optical XOR and NOT gate is implemented on a photonic crystal platform with dielectric rods in air substrate, which can be reconfigured to obtain both the logic operations without altering the structure parameters.
Abstract: A novel and compact structure for realizing all optical XOR and NOT gate is implemented on a photonic crystal platform with dielectric rods in air substrate. The proposed structure can be reconfigured to obtain both the logic operations without altering the structure parameters. The proposed design consists of square lattice of dielectric rods which provide simplicity and ease of fabrication when compared to triangular lattice. The structure works on the interference phenomena caused by phase shift of the input light signals traversing different path lengths. The structure operates at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and consumes very low power of 1 µW. The design is analyzed utilizing finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique and the bandgap diagram is explored utilizing plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The proposed structure exhibits several advantages such as reduced power consumption, small footprint of 93.5 µm2 and simple design. The response time is around 0.4ps that corresponds to a bit rate of 2.5 Tbps.

4 citations


Cites background from "Design of an all optical encoder us..."

  • ...By replacing the existing digital electronics based system with a complete optical network, it could result in high bit rates at ultra-high speeds by utilizing the full capacity of optical fibers [1]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: If a three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structure has an electromagnetic band gap which overlaps the electronic band edge, then spontaneous emission can be rigorously forbidden.
Abstract: It has been recognized for some time that the spontaneous emission by atoms is not necessarily a fixed and immutable property of the coupling between matter and space, but that it can be controlled by modification of the properties of the radiation field. This is equally true in the solid state, where spontaneous emission plays a fundamental role in limiting the performance of semiconductor lasers, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells. If a three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structure has an electromagnetic band gap which overlaps the electronic band edge, then spontaneous emission can be rigorously forbidden.

12,787 citations


"Design of an all optical encoder us..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Periodic dielectric structures where wave propagation is forbidden makes them valuable as highly ideal refractive mirrors [2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel optical 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods is proposed, where the main realization of optical encoder is based on the photonic crystal ring resonator NOR gates.
Abstract: The photonic crystals draw significant attention to build all-optical logic devices and are considered one of the solutions for the opto-electronic bottleneck via speed and size. The paper presents a novel optical 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods. The main realization of optical encoder is based on the photonic crystal ring resonator NOR gates. The proposed structure has four logic input ports, two output ports, and two bias input port. The photonic crystal structure has a square lattice of silicon rods with a refractive index of 3.39 in air. The structure has lattice constant ‘a’ equal to 630 nm and bandgap range from 0.32 to 044. The total size of the proposed 4 × 2 encoder is equal to 35 μm × 35 μm. The simulation results using the dimensional finite difference time domain and Plane Wave Expansion methods confirm the operation and the feasibility of the proposed optical encoder for ultrafast optical digital circuits.

134 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Moniem [7] combined a T waveguide and 4 resonant rings and designed a 4 to 2 optical encoder which is suitable for ultra-compact optical integrated circuits and has a size of 35 μm × 35 μm....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this study, an all optical 4-to-2 encoder have been proposed which has four input and three output ports and can generate a 2-bit binary code considering which input port is active.
Abstract: In this study, an all optical 4-to-2 encoder have been proposed which has four input and three output ports. The proposed structure can generate a 2-bit binary code considering which input port is active. For realising the proposed structure first the authors proposed and designed a BUFFER and an OR gate. Then combined these basic gates to realise the proposed encoder. The maximum switching delay and footprint for the proposed structure are about 200 fs and 880 μm2, respectively.

125 citations


"Design of an all optical encoder us..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Another approach to design such an encoder was made based on an OR gate and a buffer and the resulting structure has an overall footprint of 880μm2 [4]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an introductory survey of the basic concepts of these new technologies with particular emphasis on their main applications, together with a description of some modelling approaches, and present an overview of the main applications of these technologies.

81 citations


"Design of an all optical encoder us..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The photonic crystal structures possess a unique property called photonic band gap which helps in the confinement and control of optical waves through the structure [1]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
Iman Ouahab1, Rafah Naoum1
01 Oct 2016-Optik
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel approach to design an all optical 4 × 2 encoder is proposed by employing Kerr effect in 2D square lattice of silicon rods in photonic crystals.

76 citations