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Journal ArticleDOI

Design of Switchable Dual-Balun Feeding Structure for Pattern-Reconfigurable Endfire Antenna

08 Jun 2021-IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (IEEE)-Vol. 20, Iss: 8, pp 1463-1467
TL;DR: By adding p-i-n diodes to the ends of the coupled quarter-wavelength lines, the proposed balun enables three-status operation while it has compact size and simple configuration.
Abstract: This letter proposes a microstrip switchable dual balun using a symmetrical three-coupled-line structure, which is used as a feeding network for designing a pattern-reconfigurable endfire antenna. By adding p-i-n diodes to the ends of the coupled quarter-wavelength lines, the proposed balun enables three-status operation while it has compact size and simple configuration. Based on this, a pattern-reconfigurable endfire antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed. The peak gain of two directional statuses reaches 5.8 dBi and the front-to-back ratio (F/B) is more than 18 dB. Meanwhile, the peak gain of bidirectional status reaches 2.7 dBi and the F/B is less than 0.5 dB.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with compact structure and high efficiency is proposed by introducing a pair of switchable directors.
Abstract: A novel pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with compact structure and high efficiency is proposed in this letter by introducing a pair of switchable directors. The switchable directors are arranged on both sides of an omnidirectional DRA, which operates in the TE01δ mode. Their directing function can be controlled by switching the on/off status of the p-i-n diodes so that one omnidirectional radiation pattern and two unidirectional endfire patterns are provided in the azimuthal plane. To verify this idea, a prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed. The peak gain in endfire status reaches 4.5 dBi and the front-to-back ratio is more than 12 dB. Meanwhile, the gain variation of the omnidirectional pattern in the azimuth plane is less than 2 dB, which shows good omnidirectional radiation performance.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a novel pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator (DR) antenna with end-fire beam-scanning feature is proposed, which consists of a DR, a switchable director with 10 p-i-n diodes, and a differential feeding structure.
Abstract: A novel pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator (DR) antenna with endfire beam-scanning feature is proposed in this letter. The proposed antenna consists of a DR, a switchable director with 10 p-i-n diodes, and a differential feeding structure. The differential-fed DR operating in TE 01δ mode can provide a primary endfire pattern with wide beam. Based on this, a large-coverage beam-scanning performance can be obtained by introducing a switchable director placed in front of the DR. A prototype is fabricated and measured to verify the proposed design. By switching the p-i-n diodes of the switchable director, the proposed antenna enables a near-continuous beam scanning from −48° to +48° in the azimuth plane with a gain fluctuation of less than 0.5 dB. Besides, the 3 dB scanning coverage is up to 164° (from −82° to +82°), which shows good beam-scanning performance.

7 citations

DOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a novel pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator (DR) antenna with end-fire beam-scanning feature is proposed, which consists of a DR, a switchable director with 10 p-i-n diodes, and a differential feeding structure.
Abstract: A novel pattern-reconfigurable dielectric resonator (DR) antenna with endfire beam-scanning feature is proposed in this letter. The proposed antenna consists of a DR, a switchable director with 10 p-i-n diodes, and a differential feeding structure. The differential-fed DR operating in TE01δ mode can provide a primary endfire pattern with wide beam. Based on this, a large-coverage beam-scanning performance can be obtained by introducing a switchable director placed in front of the DR. A prototype is fabricated and measured to verify the proposed design. By switching the p-i-n diodes of the switchable director, the proposed antenna enables a near-continuous beam scanning from −48° to +48° in the azimuth plane with a gain fluctuation of less than 0.5 dB. Besides, the 3 dB scanning coverage is up to 164° (from −82° to +82°), which shows good beam-scanning performance.

4 citations

DOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a pattern-reversal wideband microstrip antenna is proposed, which is composed of a radiation patch with attached rectangular metal rings connected by a microstrip line on the upper layer and a four-defects ground plane connecting two PINdiodes-loaded L-shaped stubs on the bottom layer.
Abstract: The pattern reconfigurable antenna provides a new implementation scheme for expanding application in modern wireless communications. In this paper, a pattern-reversal wideband microstrip antenna is proposed. This antenna is composed of a radiation patch with attached rectangular metal rings connected by a microstrip line on the upper layer and a four-defects ground plane connecting two PINdiodes- loaded L-shaped stubs on the bottom layer. In view of the Yagi-antenna feature of metal rings and L-shaped stubs, the ON-OFF of diodes controls directly the radiation direction of antenna. Under the joint action of multiple resonances of rings, slots and stubs, the bandwidth of antenna is surged so as to develop evident wideband radiation. Finally, the measured impedance bandwidth of −10 dB is about 20.1% from 4.54 to 5.55 GHz. The average gain of the antenna with the size of $0.75 \lambda_{0} \times 0.75 \lambda_{0}$ reaches 4.92 dBi. With the diodes dependence, the pattern can really deflect in opposite direction. The designed antenna has much advantages, such as low cost, wider band, compact and simple structure along with explicit application scenarios.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a circular microstrip patch antenna with three complementary split rings (CSRRs) on the ground plane for pattern agility features is presented, which can steer from ±15°, 180°, and 0° of the broadside pattern in the elevation plane with a satisfactory gain of 3 dBi.
Abstract: ABSTRACT This article presents a circular microstrip patch antenna loaded with three complementary split rings (CSRRs) on the ground plane for pattern agility features. The antenna resonated at 5.3 GHz and accommodated the frequency spectrum from 5.1–5.7 GHz for different CSRR combinations. The reconfigurable pattern feature has been produced with three p-i-n diode combinations integrated with the CSRR slot on the ground patch. The CSRR combinations are utilized to change the radiation phase concerning the primary radiating circular patch. The proposed antenna radiation beam can steer from ±15°, 180°, and 0° of the broadside pattern in the elevation plane with a satisfactory gain of 3 dBi. The phase variation for various CSRR combinations concerning the primary antenna is presented. The presented antenna is fabricated on an FR4 substrate and tested in an anechoic environment; the tested results verify the pattern agility of the antenna. The demonstrated antenna is suitable for modern wireless communications like LTE and Cognitive radios. The compact size, simple biasing, and low cost are added advantages of the antenna.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel pattern reconfigurable antenna is proposed to achieve two different radiation patterns by controlling the bias voltage of switches, where the maximum radiation intensity occurs at the normal to the aperture surface defined as the boresight direction.
Abstract: A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna is proposed to achieve two different radiation patterns by controlling the bias voltage of switches. Initially, the proposed antenna operates as a top-loaded monopole antenna fed by a co-planar waveguide (CPW). When the slot from the CPW is disturbed by switching on PIN diodes, it operates as a slot antenna. Therefore, when the switch turns on, the maximum radiation intensity occurs at the normal to the aperture surface defined as the boresight direction, which is similar to a slot antenna. When the switch turns off, the maximum radiation intensity occurs at right angles to the boresight direction, which is similar to a monopole antenna. The pattern reconfigurable capability is successfully demonstrated at 2.3 GHz by full-wave simulation and measurement.

118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This letter proposes a novel pattern-reconfigurable antenna that provides an efficient solution for wireless communications by reconfiguring parasitic striplines placed around a radiating dipole and reflecting metal pieces under the dipole using p-i-n diodes.
Abstract: Pattern-reconfigurable antennas with multiple switchable beams, especially with both boresight and endfire directions, are highly desired for wireless communications. In this letter, a novel pattern-reconfigurable antenna is proposed that provides an efficient solution. By reconfiguring parasitic striplines placed around a radiating dipole and reflecting metal pieces under the dipole using p-i-n diodes, the antenna main beam can be switched to five directions in the elevation plane, approximately from $-90^{\circ }$ (left endfire), $-45^{\circ }$ , 0 $^{\circ }$ (boresight), $+45^{\circ }$ , to $+90^{\circ }$ (right endfire). The proposed antenna operates at 2.45 GHz with dimensions of about 0.57 $\lambda$ $\times\, 0.45\lambda$ $\times\, 0.28\lambda$ . An antenna prototype is fabricated and measured. For all five directional beams, the measured $|S_{11}|$ values are below $-$ 13 dB, and the measured realized gains range from 5.2 to 6.5 dBi. They agree reasonably well with the simulated ones.

116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A printed antenna with frequency and pattern reconfiguration is presented in this letter to meet the requirements of IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n and 802.16 standards and provides a low-profile, low-cost, and reconfigurable solution for multistandard wireless communication applications.
Abstract: A printed antenna with frequency and pattern reconfiguration is presented in this letter to meet the requirements of IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n and 802.16 standards. By controlling five p-i-n diodes, the antenna can be considered as a planar monopole or a microstrip patch and has three operation modes, i.e. an omnidirectional pattern mode at the lower frequency band of 2.21–2.79 GHz, a unidirectional pattern mode at the higher frequency band of 5.27–5.56 GHz, and both of them working simultaneously. It provides a low-profile, low-cost, and reconfigurable solution for multistandard wireless communication applications.

105 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a pattern reconfigurable antenna (PRA) design is introduced on the basis of a two-element dipole array model in this communication, and a patch toploaded monopole antenna is proposed to design the PRA (denoted as PTMPRA).
Abstract: A new method for pattern reconfigurable antenna (PRA) design is introduced on the basis of a two-element dipole array model in this communication. Firstly, a two-element dipole array loaded with varactor diodes is analyzed in detail. The two dipoles of the array are folded to form a square and the reconfigurable pattern characteristics of the array can be still explained by the phased array theory. And then, based on the two-element dipole array model, a patch top-loaded monopole antenna is proposed to design the PRA (denoted as PTMPRA). Applying the field equivalence principle, the antenna radiation can be analyzed with two couples of magnetic dipoles. The phase of the magnetic dipoles may be adjusted by the loaded varactor diodes, and the antenna can reconfigure the patterns in two orthogonal planes. The antenna is fabricated and measured. The studies validate that the new method for designing pattern reconfigurable patch antenna is simple and efficient.

90 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a wideband antenna with reconfigurable broadside and endfire radiating patterns is presented. But the proposed antenna adopts a variation of strip quasi-Yagi structure, where six parasitic strip directors are divided into two groups and located on two opposite sides of the driver.
Abstract: This letter presents a novel wideband antenna with reconfigurable broadside and endfire radiating patterns. The proposed antenna adopts a variation of strip quasi-Yagi structure. A wideband omnidirectional monopole is used as the driver. Six parasitic strip directors are divided into two groups and located on the two opposite sides of the driver. Two reflectors are printed on the other side of the substrate. Four p-i-n diodes are used to control the length of the reflectors and further regulate the radiating pattern. Measured results show that the proposed antenna can work at C-band with a relative bandwidth of 29%. The proposed antenna has two endfire patterns and one broadside pattern, which point to the directions of θ = ±90° and θ = 0° in the elevation plane, respectively.

87 citations