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Book

Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software

01 Jan 1994-

TL;DR: The book is an introduction to the idea of design patterns in software engineering, and a catalog of twenty-three common patterns, which most experienced OOP designers will find out they've known about patterns all along.

AbstractThe book is an introduction to the idea of design patterns in software engineering, and a catalog of twenty-three common patterns. The nice thing is, most experienced OOP designers will find out they've known about patterns all along. It's just that they've never considered them as such, or tried to centralize the idea behind a given pattern so that it will be easily reusable.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: M mothur is used as a case study to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the α and β diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments.
Abstract: mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the alpha and beta diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. This analysis of more than 222,000 sequences was completed in less than 2 h with a laptop computer.

14,946 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Gregor Kiczales1
TL;DR: This work proposes to use aspect-orientation to automate the calculation of statistics for database optimization and shows how nicely the update functionality can be modularized in an aspect and how easy it is to specify the exact places and the time when statistics updates should be performed to speed up complex queries.
Abstract: The performance of relational database applications often suffers. The reason is that query optimizers require accurate statistics about data in the database in order to provide optimal query execution plans. Unfortunately, the computation of these statistics must be initiated explicitly (e.g., within application code), and computing statistics takes some time. Moreover, it is not easy to decide when to update statistics of what tables in an application. A well-engineered solution requires adding source code usually in many places of an application. The issue of updating the statistics for database optimization is a crosscutting concern. Thus we propose to use aspect-orientation to automate the calculation. We show how nicely the update functionality can be modularized in an aspect and how easy it is to specify the exact places and the time when statistics updates should be performed to speed up complex queries. Due to the automatic nature, computation takes place on time for complex queries, only when necessary, and only for stale tables. The implementation language for the automated aspect-oriented statistics update concern is AspectJ, a well known and mature aspect-oriented programming language. The approach can however be implemented in any other aspect-oriented language. Unlike in traditional object-oriented pattern solutions, e.g. using the interceptor pattern, we do not have to modify existing code.

5,159 citations


Cites background from "Design Patterns: Elements of Reusab..."

  • ...The agent exposes a façade [23] to which the application needs to make calls at significant points in its execution....

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  • ...Lohmann, Gal, and Spinczyk [23] demonstrate that these mechanisms can be used to develop code with an aspect-oriented style, but without the obliviousness of aspects: everything must be explicitly instantiated through templates, which have to have the extension points designed in....

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  • ...P6Spy [28] is a popular library the uses the decorator pattern [23] to collect information about JDBC usage....

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  • ...The main limitation of implementing aspects as templates and of policy classes is that the extension points of an aspect or the actual policy location of a policy class must be designed into the template [23]....

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  • ...Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2004 [23] Seshadri, P....

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Book
Martin Fowler1
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: Almost every expert in Object-Oriented Development stresses the importance of iterative development, but how do you add function to the existing code base while still preserving its design integrity?
Abstract: Almost every expert in Object-Oriented Development stresses the importance of iterative development. As you proceed with the iterative development, you need to add function to the existing code base. If you are really lucky that code base is structured just right to support the new function while still preserving its design integrity. Of course most of the time we are not lucky, the code does not quite fit what we want to do. You could just add the function on top of the code base. But soon this leads to applying patch upon patch making your system more complex than it needs to be. This complexity leads to bugs, and cripples your productivity.

5,152 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[4], [5], [6] Object-oriented design techniques such as CRC[7] focus on defining classes and their protocols....

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01 Jan 1999
Abstract: Written by the three pioneers behind the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual provides an excellent real-world guide to working with UML. This title provides expert knowledge on all facets of today's UML standard, helping developers who are encountering UML on the job for the first time to be more productive. The book begins with a history of UML, from structured design methods of the '60s and '70s to the competing object-oriented design standards that were unified in 1997 to create UML. For the novice, the authors illustrate key diagram types such as class, use case, state machine, activity, and implementation. (Of course, learning these basic diagram types is what UML is all about. The authors use an easy-to-understand ticket-booking system for many of their examples.) After a tour of basic document types, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual provides an alphabetical listing of more than 350 UML terms. Entries range from a sentence or two to several pages in length. (Class, operation, and use case are just a few of the important terms that are covered.) Though you will certainly need to be acquainted with software engineering principles, this reference will serve the working software developer well. As the authors note, this isn't UML for Dummies, but neither is it an arcane academic treatise. The authors succeed in delivering a readable reference that will answer any UML question, no matter how common or obscure. --Richard Dragan

4,531 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis and provide support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods.
Abstract: Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis.

3,405 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1968
TL;DR: The arrangement of this invention provides a strong vibration free hold-down mechanism while avoiding a large pressure drop to the flow of coolant fluid.
Abstract: A fuel pin hold-down and spacing apparatus for use in nuclear reactors is disclosed. Fuel pins forming a hexagonal array are spaced apart from each other and held-down at their lower end, securely attached at two places along their length to one of a plurality of vertically disposed parallel plates arranged in horizontally spaced rows. These plates are in turn spaced apart from each other and held together by a combination of spacing and fastening means. The arrangement of this invention provides a strong vibration free hold-down mechanism while avoiding a large pressure drop to the flow of coolant fluid. This apparatus is particularly useful in connection with liquid cooled reactors such as liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors.

17,918 citations


Book
Adele E. Goldberg1, David Robson1
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: This book is the first detailed account of the Smalltalk-80 system and is divided into four major parts: an overview of the concepts and syntax of the programming language, a specification of the system's functionality, and an example of the design and implementation of a moderate-size application.
Abstract: From the Preface (See Front Matter for full Preface) Advances in the design and production of computer hardware have brought many more people into direct contact with computers. Similar advances in the design and production of computer software are required in order that this increased contact be as rewarding as possible. The Smalltalk-80 system is a result of a decade of research into creating computer software that is appropriate for producing highly functional and interactive contact with personal computer systems. This book is the first detailed account of the Smalltalk-80 system. It is divided into four major parts: Part One -- an overview of the concepts and syntax of the programming language. Part Two -- an annotated and illustrated specification of the system's functionality. Part Three -- an example of the design and implementation of a moderate-size application. Part Four -- a specification of the Smalltalk-80 virtual machine.

3,856 citations


Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: This chapter discusses object-oriented software engineering as a process of change, management and reuse, and some of the methods used to develop and implement object- oriented software.
Abstract: Part 1. Introduction 1. System development as an industrial process Introduction A useful analogy System development characteristics Summary 2. The system life cycle Introduction System development as a process of change System development and reuse System development and methodology Objectory Summary 3. What is object-orientation? Introduction Object Class andinstance Polymorphism Inheritance Summary 4. Object-oriented system development Introduction Function/data methods Object-oriented analysis Object-oriented construction Object-oriented testing Summary 5. Object-oriented programming Introduction Objects Classes and instances Inheritance Polymorphism An example Summary Part II. Concepts 6. Architecture Introduction System development is model building Model architecture Requirements model Analysis model The design model The implementation model Test model Summary 7. Analysis Introduction The requirements model The analysis model Summary 8. Construction Introduction The design model Block design Working with construction Summary 9. Real-time specialization Introduction Classification of real-time systems Fundamental issues Analysis Construction Testing and verification Summary 10. Database Specialization Introduction Relational DBMS Object DBMS Discussion Summary 11. Components Introduction What is a component? Use of components Component management Summary 12. Testing Introduction On testing Unit testing Integration testing System testing The testing process Summary Part III. Applications 13. Case study: warehouse management system Introduction to the examples ACME Warehouse Management Inc. The requirements model The analysis model Construction 14. Case study: telecom Introduction Telecommunication switching systems The requirements model The analysis model The design model The implementation model 15. Managing object-oriented software engineering Introduction Project selection and preparation Project development organization Project organization and management Project staffing Software quality assurance Software metrics Summary 16. Other object-oriented methods Introduction A summary of object-oriented methods Object-Oriented Analysis (OOAD/Coad-Yourdon) Object-Oriented Design (OOD/Booch) Hierarchical Object-Oriented Design (HOOD) Object Modeling Technique (OMT) Responsibility-Driven Design Summary Appendix A On the development of Objectory Introduction Objectory as an activity From idea to reality References Index

3,647 citations


Book
01 Jan 1977

3,059 citations


01 Jan 1991
Abstract: 1. Introduction. I. MODELING CONCEPTS. 2. Modeling as a Design Technique. 3. Object Modeling. 4. Advanced Object Modeling. 5. Dynamic Modeling. 6. Functional Modeling. II. DESIGN METHODOLOGY. 7. Methodology Preview. 8. Analysis. 9. System Design. 10. Object Design. 11. Methodology Summary. 12. Comparison of Methodologies. III. IMPLEMENTATION. 13. From Design to Implementation. 14. Programming Style. 15. Object-Oriented Languages. 16. Non-Object-Oriented Languages. 17. Databases. 18. Object Diagram Compiler. 19. Computer Animation. 20. Electrical Distribution Design System. 21. Future of Object-Oriented Technology. Appendix A: OMT Graphical Notation. Appendix B: Glossary. Index.

2,411 citations