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Journal ArticleDOI

Design Tools for Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Toward Functional Diversification and More Than Moore

TL;DR: The droplet-based “digital” microfluidic technology platform and emerging applications are described, and computer-aided design tools for simulation, synthesis and chip optimization are presented.
Abstract: Microfluidics-based biochips enable the precise control of nanoliter volumes of biochemical samples and reagents. They combine electronics with biology, and they integrate various bioassay operations, such as sample preparation, analysis, separation, and detection. Compared to conventional laboratory procedures, which are cumbersome and expensive, miniaturized biochips offer the advantages of higher sensitivity, lower cost due to smaller sample and reagent volumes, system integration, and less likelihood of human error. This paper first describes the droplet-based “digital” microfluidic technology platform and emerging applications. The physical principles underlying droplet actuation are next described. Finally, the paper presents computer-aided design tools for simulation, synthesis and chip optimization. These tools target modeling and simulation, scheduling, module placement, droplet routing, pin-constrained chip design, and testing.

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Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2009

114 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 May 2011-Sensors
TL;DR: A broad overview of the need for devices that are easy to operate, sensitive, fast, portable and sufficiently reliable to be used as complementary tools for the control of pathogenic agents that damage the environment is provided.
Abstract: Microfluidics-based lab-on-chip (LOC) systems are an active research area that is revolutionising high-throughput sequencing for the fast, sensitive and accurate detection of a variety of pathogens. LOCs also serve as portable diagnostic tools. The devices provide optimum control of nanolitre volumes of fluids and integrate various bioassay operations that allow the devices to rapidly sense pathogenic threat agents for environmental monitoring. LOC systems, such as microfluidic biochips, offer advantages compared to conventional identification procedures that are tedious, expensive and time consuming. This paper aims to provide a broad overview of the need for devices that are easy to operate, sensitive, fast, portable and sufficiently reliable to be used as complementary tools for the control of pathogenic agents that damage the environment.

96 citations


Cites background from "Design Tools for Digital Microfluid..."

  • ...Unavoidable shear flow and diffusion in the microchannels makes inter-sample and dead volumes difficult to eliminate [47]....

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  • ...The circulation flow within the droplet and the high surface-to-volume ratio enhances efficient mixing and provides thermal dissipation with short reaction times [47]....

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  • ...In most electrically controlled digital microfluidic devices [47,49], the droplets are either conductive or highly polarisable....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although IoT eHealth has vastly expanded the possibilities to fulfill a number of existing healthcare needs, many challenges must still be addressed in order to develop consistent, suitable, safe, flexible, and power-efficient systems that are suitable fit for medical needs.
Abstract: The interaction between technology and healthcare has a long history. However, recent years have witnessed the rapid growth and adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, the advent of miniature wearable biosensors, and research advances in big data techniques for effective manipulation of large, multiscale, multimodal, distributed, and heterogeneous data sets. These advances have generated new opportunities for personalized precision eHealth and mHealth services. IoT heralds a paradigm shift in the healthcare horizon by providing many advantages, including availability and accessibility, ability to personalize and tailor content, and cost-effective delivery. Although IoT eHealth has vastly expanded the possibilities to fulfill a number of existing healthcare needs, many challenges must still be addressed in order to develop consistent, suitable, safe, flexible, and power-efficient systems that are suitable fit for medical needs. To enable this transformation, it is necessary for a large number of significant technological advancements in the hardware and software communities to come together. This keynote paper addresses all these important aspects of novel IoT technologies for smart healthcare-wearable sensors, body area sensors, advanced pervasive healthcare systems, and big data analytics. It identifies new perspectives and highlights compelling research issues and challenges, such as scalability, interoperability, device-network-human interfaces, and security, with various case studies. In addition, with the help of examples, we show how knowledge from CAD areas, such as large scale analysis and optimization techniques can be applied to the important problems of eHealth.

91 citations


Cites background from "Design Tools for Digital Microfluid..."

  • ...Yet another application area of EDA lies in the design of microfluidic biochips [34]....

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  • ...The basic idea of an LoC (also known as a microfluidic biochip) is to integrate all necessary elementary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics technology; such functions include assay operations, detection, and sample preparation [34]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Nov 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of microfluidic biochips and describe emerging computer-aided design tools for the automated synthesis and optimization of bio-chips, from physical modeling to fluidic-level synthesis and then to chip-level design.
Abstract: Advances in droplet-based digital microfluidics have led to the emergence of biochips for automating laboratory procedures in biochemistry and molecular biology. These devices enable the precise control of microliter of nanoliter volumes of biochemical samples and reagents. They combine electronics with biology, and integrate various bioassay operations, such as sample preparation, analysis, separation, and detection. Compared to conventional laboratory procedures, which are cumbersome and expensive, miniaturized digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) offer the advantages of higher sensitivity, lower cost, system integration, and less likelihood of human error. This tutorial paper provides an overview of DMFBs and describes emerging computer-aided design (CAD) tools for the automated synthesis and optimization of biochips, from physical modeling to fluidic-level synthesis and then to chip-level design. By efficiently utilizing the electronic design automation (EDA) technique on emerging CAD tools, users can concentrate on the development of nanoscale bioas-says, leaving chip optimization and implementation details to design-automation tools.

76 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) has been used to approximate free boundaries in finite-difference numerical simulations, which is shown to be more flexible and efficient than other methods for treating complicated free boundary configurations.

11,567 citations

Book
01 Jan 1960
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the nature and properties of liquid interfaces, including the formation of a new phase, nucleation and crystal growth, and the contact angle of surfaces of solids.
Abstract: Capillarity. The Nature and Thermodynamics of Liquid Interfaces. Surface Films on Liquid Substrates. Electrical Aspects of Surface Chemistry. Long--Range Forces. Surfaces of Solids. Surfaces of Solids: Microscopy and Spectroscopy. The Formation of a New Phase--Nucleation and Crystal Growth. The Solid--Liquid Interface--Contact Angle. The Solid--Liquid Interface--Adsorption from Solution. Frication, Lubrication, and Adhesion. Wetting, Flotation, and Detergency. Emulsions, Foams, and Aerosols. Macromolecular Surface Films, Charged Films, and Langmuir--Blodgett Layers. The Solid--Gas Interface--General Considerations. Adsorption of Gases and Vapors on Solids. Chemisorption and Catalysis. Index.

10,790 citations

Book
01 May 1997
TL;DR: Gaph Teory Fourth Edition is standard textbook of modern graph theory which covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each chapter by one or two deeper results.
Abstract: Gaph Teory Fourth Edition Th is standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each fi eld by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.

6,255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

3,822 citations


"Design Tools for Digital Microfluid..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Digital microfluidics systems based on EWD has been developed furthest in terms of demonstrating on-chip applications that are clinically relevant [34]....

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Book
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the Hamilton-Jacobi equations and associated theory are used to formulate the interface propagation problem and then algorithms for the initial and boundary value formulations are proposed for semi-conductor manufacturing.
Abstract: Introduction 1 Formulations of interface propagation Part I Theory and Algorithms: 2 Theory of curve and surface evolution 3 Hamilton-Jacobi equations and associated theory 4 Numerical approximations: first attempt 5 Numerical schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws 6 Algorithms for the initial and boundary value formulations 7 Efficient schemes: adaptivity 8 Triangulated versions of level set and fast marching method: extensions and variations 9 Tests of basic methods Part II Applications: 10 Geometry 11 Grid generation 12 Image denoising 13 Computer vision: shape detection and recognition 14 Fluid mechanics and materials sciences: adding physics 15 Computational geometry and computer-aided-design 16 First arrivals, optimizations, and control 17 Applications to semi-conductor manufacturing 18 Comments, conclusions, future directions References Index

3,247 citations