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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00207543.2020.1824086

Designing a blockchain enabled supply chain

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Production Research (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 59, Iss: 5, pp 1450-1475
Abstract: While blockchain technologies are gaining momentum within supply chains, academic understanding of concrete, real-life design and implementation is still lagging, hence offering very limited insights into the true implications of blockchain technology on supply chains. This paper reports a two-year design science research (DSR) study of a smart contract initiative piloted by a consortium in the UK’s construction sector. We seek answers to the research question, ‘How should a blockchain enabled supply chain be designed?’ Guided by the theory of business model, we explore how a group of supply chain actors collectively designs and pilots a blockchain solution that addresses the supply chain transparency and provenance problem. Our research is one of the very few longitudinal empirical studies to offer in-depth evidence about how blockchain is deployed in complex multi-tier supply chain networks. In compliance with DSR research paradigm, we make contributions at three levels: designing and instantiating the blockchain architect and proving its utility in addressing the target problem; developing a set of design principles as a mid-range theory that can be applied and tested in different blockchain supply chain contexts; and refining and extending the kernel theory of business value at supply chain network level.

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Topics: Supply chain network (63%), Supply chain (60%), Blockchain (60%) ... show more

13 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This research-perspective article reviews and contributes to the literature that explains how to deter internal computer abuse (ICA), which is criminal computer behavior committed by organizational insiders. ICA accounts for a large portion of insider trading, fraud, embezzlement, the selling of trade secrets, customer privacy violations, and other criminal behaviors, all of which are highly damaging to organizations. Although ICA represents a momentous threat for organizations, and despite numerous calls to examine this behavior, the academic response has been lukewarm. However, a few security researchers have examined ICA’s influence in an organizational context and the potential means of deterring it. However, the results of the studies have been mixed, leading to a debate on the applicability of deterrence theory (DT) to ICA. We argue that more compelling opportunities will arise in DT research if security researchers more deeply study its assumptions and more carefully recontextualize it. The purpose of this article is to advance a deterrence research agenda that is grounded in the pivotal criminological deterrence literature. Drawing on the distinction between absolute and restrictive deterrence and aligning them with rational choice theory (RCT), this paper shows how deterrence can be used to mitigate the participation in and frequency of ICA. We thus propose that future research on the deterrent effects of ICA should be anchored in a more general RCT, rather than in examinations of deterrence as an isolated construct. We then explain how adopting RCT with DT opens up new avenues of research. Consequently, we propose three areas for future research, which cover not only the implications for the study of ICA deterrence, but also the potential motivations for this type of offence and the skills required to undertake them.

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Topics: Deterrence theory (58%)

21 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2020-03091541
Abstract: Emerging technologies are always treated with caution, and Blockchain is no exception to this rule. The AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operations) sector is considered conservative when it comes to technology adoption, which is often positive in an industry that deals with a vital commodity that could harm humans or result in catastrophe. However, excessive caution also stifles innovation, as shown in the industry’s low R&D expenditure when compared to other industrial activities. In recent years, the AECO sector has benefited from the adoption of new information management tools and systems that allow professionals to develop, share and store construction data more effectively. These tools have successfully tackled many of the traditional interoperability issues that have affected the industry, but several challenges remain unsolved. Indeed, effective real-world communication depends, not only on the compatibility between data formats and systems, but also on issues such as privacy, transparency, and trust. Blockchain has been adopted in different activities as a tool to address these issues, but its impact in the construction industry remains scarce. This paper presents a bibliometric study for the available literature on Blockchain implementation in the AECO sector. In addition to the bibliometric review, content analysis for the literature retrieved is presented to provide a clear vision of the current directions regarding Blockchain technology adoption. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the maturity of Blockchain in Construction literature using statistics based on the available bibliometrics in addition to content analysis. The main results show that although the number of articles about the use of Blockchain in Construction has increased, no studies that present ready to use solutions were found. Instead, the covered studies discuss the technical capabilities of the technology and suggest possible fields of implementation, such as smart contracts and automated payments. Study limitations include the limited amount of literature that can be found on major indexing services, which cover a relatively short reference period.

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Topics: Blockchain (51%), Bibliometrics (51%), Emerging technologies (50%)

18 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AUTCON.2021.103914
Denis J. Scott1, Tim Broyd1, Ling Ma1Institutions (1)
Abstract: First academic publications on blockchain in construction instantiated in 2017, with three documents. Over the course of several years, new literature emerged at an average annual growth rate of 184%, surmounting to 121 documents at time of writing this article in early 2021. All 121 publications were reviewed to investigate the expansion and progression of the topic. A mixed methods approach was implemented to assess the existing environment through a literature review and scientometric analysis. Altogether, 33 application categories of blockchain in construction were identified and organised into seven subject areas, these include (1) procurement and supply chain, (2) design and construction, (3) operations and life cycle, (4) smart cities, (5) intelligent systems, (6) energy and carbon footprint, and (7) decentralised organisations. Limitations included using only one scientific database (Scopus), this was due to format inconsistencies when downloading and merging various bibliographic data sets for use in visual mapping software.

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3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11178161
02 Sep 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: Performance measurement and information management are vital assets for supply chain management. In this study, we analyzed the effective combination between blockchain technologies and supply chain management processes. We conducted eighteen interviews with international experts from different areas and analyzed the collected data following a grounded theory approach. We have identified five main categories in this area including accounting and administration, trust, data platform, interoperability, and disintermediation. The main findings concluded with a set of seven statements as key elements to summarize how blockchain-based supply chains fit in with supplier relationship management processes and financial business units for international trade. The seven statements also recommend future research activities and trajectories.

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Topics: Supply chain (60%), Supply chain management (59%), Supplier relationship management (56%) ... show more

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJPE.2021.108165
Abstract: Blockchain technology has been widely touted for building and supporting supply chain management capabilities. The technology has substantial potential to enhance operational effectiveness and profitability. Blockchain platform evaluation and selection still requires investigation. Blockchain platform selection and adoption decision making in a multi-organizational supply chain context is complex. Effective blockchain adoption and operations requires consideration of multiple vendors—service providers—and platforms while satisfying multiple users and stakeholders. This study introduces a managerial decision support method to assist organizations evaluate and select joint blockchain service vendor and platforms for multiple organizational functions and organizations. Using literature and practice, we introduce blockchain service vendor and platform attributes from user, vendor, and platform perspectives. A social network theory lens sets the foundation for an innovative group decision-making method—a DEMATEL-based hierarchical best-worst method—integrating characteristics from this decision environment. The technological and distributed network nature of blockchain technology requires evaluation by decision makers from various levels of a supply chain network. These decision makers will likely have varying blockchain technology knowledge and subjective preferences that need integration. The proposed method helps to operationalize social network relationships to comprehend partial and idiosyncratic expert opinions about blockchain technology. An illustrative example and various scenarios are presented to identify managerial and research implications. Methodological limitations and future research are presented for this emergent managerial and technological concern across supply chains.

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Topics: Blockchain (58%), Vendor (56%), Supply chain network (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


88 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Icek Ajzen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability. © 1991 Academic Press. Inc.

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Topics: Theory of planned behavior (64%), Reasoned action approach (62%), Expectancy theory (60%) ... show more

55,422 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/249008
Fred D. Davis1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Valid measurement scales for predicting user acceptance of computers are in short supply. Most subjective measures used in practice are unvalidated, and their relationship to system usage is unknown. The present research develops and validates new scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are hypothesized to be fundamental determinants of user acceptance. Definitions of these two variables were used to develop scale items that were pretested for content validity and then tested for reliability and construct validity in two studies involving a total of 152 users and four application programs. The measures were refined and streamlined, resulting in two six-item scales with reliabilities of .98 for usefulness and .94 for ease of use. The scales exhibited hgih convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity. Perceived usefulness was significnatly correlated with both self-reported current usage r = .63, Study 1) and self-predicted future usage r = .85, Study 2). Perceived ease of use was also significantly correlated with current usage r = .45, Study 1) and future usage r = .59, Study 2). In both studies, usefulness had a signficnatly greater correaltion with usage behavior than did ease of use. Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a causal antecdent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a parallel, direct determinant of system usage. Implications are drawn for future research on user acceptance.

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35,886 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/30036540
Abstract: Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (adjusted R2 of 70 percent). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.

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24,087 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Jan 1949-
Topics: Social change (77%), Social relation (75%), Social network (75%) ... show more

13,665 Citations