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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna by Regression Analysis

01 Sep 2018-pp 1-4
TL;DR: A family of symmetrical wire dipoles having the geometry of the Koch-type prefractal made it possible to select the most matching antennas for operation in the selected Wi-Fi band.
Abstract: A family of symmetrical wire dipoles having the geometry of the Koch-type prefractal is considered. A regression analysis for the electrodynamic characteristics and geometric parameters of the antennas is performed. Regression models of the base frequency for dipoles having different scales are obtained. A subfamily of antennas with a resonance at frequencies of 2.4-2.5 GHz is identified via regression models. Further analysis of the reflection coefficient and the bandwidth of the antennas from the given family made it possible to select the most matching antennas for operation in the selected Wi-Fi band.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jun 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the dependence of the base frequency and the reflection coefficient on the dipole wire length and scale is analyzed, and it is shown that it is possible to distinguish a family of antennas operating at a given (identical) base frequency.
Abstract: Koch-type wire dipole antennas are considered herein. In the case of a first-order prefractal, such antennas differ from a Koch-type dipole by the position of the central vertex of the dipole arm. Earlier, we investigated the dependence of the base frequency for different antenna scales for an arm in the form of a first-order prefractal. In this paper, dipoles for second-order prefractals are considered. The dependence of the base frequency and the reflection coefficient on the dipole wire length and scale is analyzed. It is shown that it is possible to distinguish a family of antennas operating at a given (identical) base frequency. The same length of a Koch-type curve can be obtained with different coordinates of the central vertex. This allows for obtaining numerous antennas with various scales and geometries of the arm. An algorithm for obtaining small antennas for Wi-Fi applications is proposed. Two antennas were obtained: an antenna with the smallest linear dimensions and a minimum antenna for a given reflection coefficient.

14 citations


Cites methods from "Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna ..."

  • ...Following [33], a regression analysis of the set of points in Figure 4 was conducted separately at each scale according to the formula f̂1 = k1 e−k2 L (8)...

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  • ...We previously used this approach to model a Koch-type dipole of the first iteration for Wi-Fi applications [33]....

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  • ...In this case, the approach proposed in [33] was used....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2020
TL;DR: The work’s goal is to establish the dependence of the base frequency on the dimension of the curve forming the antenna arm of the Koch type, and it is concluded that for the second and third iterations, the best correlation is a correlation between the base Frequency and the Higuchi dimension.
Abstract: A dipole wire antenna of the Koch type is considered. The antenna consists of a wire dipole with symmetrical arms with respect to the feed point with the geometry similar to the Koch prefractal. The curves forming the arms differ from the classical Koch fractal only by the position of the central vertex. The work’s goal is to establish the dependence of the base frequency on the dimension of the curve forming the antenna arm. Various dimensions as characteristics of the curve are considered. The dimensions are Minkowski dimension, information dimension, correlation dimension and Higuchi fractal dimension. The algorithm to calculate the Higuchi dimension for our curves is adapted. Also, algorithms for calculating the other dimensions are described. Relationships between the base frequency of the Koch-type wire dipole and the dimensions are explored. The correlation analysis for the first three Koch-type prefractals is carried out. The values of all correlation coefficients between the base frequency and the considered dimensions are given in the tables. It is concluded that for the second and third iterations, the best correlation is a correlation between the base frequency and the Higuchi dimension. The optimal one-parameter regression models for the base frequency in the case of the second and third iterations are constructed. The obtained regression model for the second iteration approximates the frequency values with an error of 1.17%. The model for the third iteration approximates the frequency values with an error of 1.46%.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A calibration-free chipless RFID system with 20.7-bit capacity is proposed; moreover, the design of the 1.68 million tags is highly efficient, preventing individual and iterative optimization for such large numbers of configurations.
Abstract: Earlier studies have improved the data capacity of frequency-coded chipless radiofrequency identification (RFID) to 100 bits, but these high-density tags may suffer from two limitations, including the design complexity for billions of tags and an additional procedure for measuring clutter. In this paper, a calibration-free chipless RFID system with 20.7-bit capacity is proposed; moreover, the design of the 1.68 million tags is highly efficient, preventing individual and iterative optimization for such large numbers of configurations. These distinct features are obtained by integrating the signal processing of reader and the resonance synthesis of tags. The signal processing employs short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and enhanced filtering to achieve calibration-free detection. The resonance synthesis features minimized numbers of geometric parameters, reduced mutual coupling between resonators, and response surface models for the resonant frequency to realize noniterative optimization. The proposed system is validated by three approaches. First, residual plots indicate that the range of residuals is confined to the average bandwidth of frequency slots. Second, 36 IDs are sampled and automatically transformed into chipless tags. The measured reliability of four bands is as high as 100%, 95.0%, 98.3%, and 93.9%, respectively. Finally, the parameterization of signal processing is validated by time-frequency analysis and reliability.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a calibration-free chipless RFID system with 20.7-bit capacity was proposed and the design of the 1.68 million tags is highly efficient, preventing individual and iterative optimization for such large numbers of configurations.
Abstract: Earlier studies have improved the data capacity of frequency-coded chipless radiofrequency identification (RFID) to 100 bits, but these high-density tags may suffer from two limitations, including the design complexity for billions of tags and an additional procedure for measuring clutter. In this paper, a calibration-free chipless RFID system with 20.7-bit capacity is proposed; moreover, the design of the 1.68 million tags is highly efficient, preventing individual and iterative optimization for such large numbers of configurations. These distinct features are obtained by integrating the signal processing of reader and the resonance synthesis of tags. The signal processing employs short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and enhanced filtering to achieve calibration-free detection. The resonance synthesis features minimized numbers of geometric parameters, reduced mutual coupling between resonators, and response surface models for the resonant frequency to realize noniterative optimization. The proposed system is validated by three approaches. First, residual plots indicate that the range of residuals is confined to the average bandwidth of frequency slots. Second, 36 IDs are sampled and automatically transformed into chipless tags. The measured reliability of four bands is as high as 100%, 95.0%, 98.3%, and 93.9%, respectively. Finally, the parameterization of signal processing is validated by time-frequency analysis and reliability.

2 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2022
TL;DR: In this article , a biconcave shape of the conventional shape of dielectric resonating antenna has been modified to fit to the frequency of 28 GHz, where the maximum arc-to-arc distance equal to the wavelength was calculated from the design frequency.
Abstract: The conventional shape of dielectric resonating antenna has been modified to a biconcave shape having maximum arc-to-arc distance equal to the wavelength that has been calculated from the design frequency of 28 GHz. The height of the dielectric resonator has been selected as 3.8 mm with the material Alumina 92_pct having the dielectric constant 9.2. The dimension of the substrate has been taken as 40 mm × 40 mm × 1.6 mm. The broadband characteristic has been obtained with the −10 dB bandwidth more than 6 GHz. The frequency range has been considered from 22 to 28 GHz which includes many applications like satellite communication and 5G communication. Multiband characteristic has been obtained from the simulation result at the frequencies 22.8, 25 and 27.54 GHz. The simulation has been carried out by Ansys Electronic Suit-HFSS (high-frequency structure simulator). Optimization of the parameters have been done by using different machine learning algorithms, and a comparative study has been made.

1 citations

References
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BookDOI
01 Feb 2004

1,831 citations


"Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The present work is devoted specifically to the design of a wire Wi-Fi antenna using regression analysis, constructed on the basis of the first iteration of the Koch-type curve [16] and operating in the frequency range: 2....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting the impedance and radiation characteristics in close agreement with those predicted numerically.
Abstract: It is shown how modern rapid prototyping technologies can be applied for quick and inexpensive, but still accurate, fabrication of electrically small wire antennas. A well known folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting the impedance and radiation characteristics in close agreement with those predicted numerically.

60 citations


"Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Various methods are used to analyze and synthesize wire antennas [9-11]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main electrodynamic parameters for a family of balanced wire dipole antennas having arms similarly to the Koch first-order pre-fractal are developed and an algorithm for developing the antennas having preset characteristics is described.

15 citations

12 Dec 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, a family of Koch-type wire dipoles with arm geometry similar to the first-order Koch pre-fractal and microstrip antennas with a radiator having a symmetric four-comb-shape profile is considered.
Abstract: We consider a family of Koch-type wire dipoles with arm geometry similar to the first-order Koch pre-fractal and microstrip antennas with a radiator having a symmetric four-comb-shape profile. The selection of wire antennas is constructed by changing the position of the central vertex of the Koch-type pre-fractal of the first order. The selection of microstrip antennas is constructed by changing the width, depth, and length of the cutouts of the radiator. For these antenna samples, the basic characteristics describing the geometry of the antennas are determined. The application of correlation and regression analysis to the modeling of these types of antennas is considered. Based on the correlation relationships, the main geometric parameters of wire and microstrip antennas are revealed, which most strongly affect such electrodynamic characteristics of antennas as the base frequency, reflection coefficient, bandwidth, reactance and resistance. Correlation tables of electrodynamic and geometric characteristics and correlative diagrams are presented, with the aid of which linear and nonlinear regression models are constructed. For the given models, the mean square and mean relative errors are calculated. We indicate that on the basis of regression models, it is possible to carry out the synthesis of a wire and microstrip antennas with the corresponding predetermined properties.

8 citations


"Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For example, Koch-type wire dipoles of the first three iterations were investigated by methods of correlation and regression analysis, and regression models for the basic electrodynamic parameters of the antennas were constructed in [12-15]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Nov 2010
TL;DR: An ultra wideband antenna is achieved by applying a new fractal geometry to a wire square loop antenna and choosing appropriate size and feed location via SuperNEC electromagnetic simulator.
Abstract: Advanced communication systems require small size and wideband antennas. Fractals have unique properties such as self-similarity and space-filling therefore, antenna designers use fractal geometry in multi-band and broad-band antennas designing. In this paper I have achieved an ultra wideband antenna by applying a new fractal geometry to a wire square loop antenna and choosing appropriate size and feed location. Modelling and simulation are performed via SuperNEC electromagnetic simulator. Results of simulation show that the suggested design is a broad-band antenna which is applicable in dual bandwidths including 7.5 – 14.5 GHz and 17.5 – 37 GHz. Radiation patterns are also studied.

5 citations


"Designing a Koch-Type Wire Antenna ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A large number of works are devoted to the design and investigation of wire antennas for wireless communication [1-8]....

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