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Journal ArticleDOI

Designing and Engineering of Jute Geotextile (JGT) for River Bank Protection and its Subsequent Implementation in River Phulahar

21 Mar 2016-Journal of Natural Fibers (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 192-203
TL;DR: In this article, Department of Jute and Fibre Technology, University of Calcutta, India, in collaboration with National Jute Board, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India alongwith Irrigation and Waterways Department, Govt of West Bengal, India.
Abstract: Jute geotextile (JGT) is gradually finding increasing acceptability among geotechnical engineers primarily because of its response to the growing global emphasis. The ecoconcordance of JGT concomitant with its other benefits like facility of production of tailor-made fabrics and price competitiveness have made it the best natural choice for different civil engineering constructions. Natural geotextile such as JGT has been experimented across the world as a bioengineering measure for river bank erosion control and the results are encouraging. Conventional methods of river bank protection in the erosion-prone stretches of the Indian rivers have proved to be a highly expensive proposition with respect to both capital investment and recurring maintenance costs. It is for this reason, Department of Jute and Fibre Technology, University of Calcutta, India in collaboration with National Jute Board, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India alongwith Irrigation and Waterways Department, Government of West Bengal,...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the composition and function of geotextiles in geotechnical engineering are reviewed based on literatures including the most recent data, with emphasis on green geote-xtiles, intelligent geotextextex, and high-performance geoteXtiles.
Abstract: Most geotextiles consist of polymers of polyolefin, polyester or polyamide family, which involve environmental problems related to soil pollution. Geotextiles can be used for at least one of the following functions: Separation, reinforcement, filtration, drainage, stabilization, barrier, and erosion protection. Due to the characteristics of high strength, low cost, and easy to use, geotextiles are widely used in geotechnical engineering such as soft foundation reinforcement, slope protection, and drainage system. This paper reviews composition and function of geotextiles in geotechnical engineering. In addition, based on literatures including the most recent data, the discussion turns to recent development of geotextiles, with emphasis on green geotextiles, intelligent geotextiles, and high-performance geotextiles. The present situation of these new geotextiles and their application in geotechnical engineering are reviewed.

55 citations


Cites background from "Designing and Engineering of Jute G..."

  • ...Jute geotextiles Prevention of river bed scour It can effectively filter and separate, and prevent the migration of fine particles in free-flowing water [58]...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used principal component analysis (PCA) for interpersonal processes and a minimum for intergroup processes (∼80%) to study the psychology of people affected by land erosion in West Bengal.
Abstract: Social psychology of people affected by hazards is different from normal psychology. For example, severe bank erosion in the lower reach of the Bhagirathi River in West Bengal has resulted in significant land loss (∼60% of all households lost land over last 20 years) and affected the livelihoods of the people in the study villages along the river. Per capita income has almost halved from 1970–2012 due to land loss. This stark nature of land erosion and vulnerability of livelihood has had far-reaching repercussions on the fabric of society and the psychology of the people in this region. Results showed that erosion-affected villages have registered comparatively larger average family sizes (∼4.1 as compared to ∼3.9 in non-affected villages), lower literacy levels ( 65% for the non-affected villages), and poor health. Reports of poor health as a result of land erosion include ∼60% of the respondents having reported physical ailments such as headache and abdominal discomfort, as well as 3%–5% reporting loss of emotional and psychological balance. Villages suffering from erosion showed higher positive loadings in average-coefficient of variation (CV) differential (25%–40%) depicting objectivity in their opinions for select variables of social processes. Principal component analysis (PCA) portrayed maximum eigenvalues in the first principal component for interpersonal processes (∼98%) and a minimum for intergroup processes (∼80%). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) depicted a cluster between interpersonal and intergroup processes and another between intra-individual and group categories. The positive loadings in female-male differences in CV of perceptions portrayed relative consistency of males over the females concerning fear/phobia and physical stress while negative loadings exhibited higher consistency for females regarding psychological stress and shock. Lastly, the Tajfel matrix portrayed a distinction between hazard psychology characterized by maximum joint profit as found in Rukunpur, and normal psychology characterized by in-group favoritism as found in Matiari.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the potentials of biological geotextiles constructed from two local plants, Pennisetum purpureum and Broussonetia papyrifera, in reducing erosion and sedimentation during reclamation at Newmont Ghana Gold Limited were investigated.
Abstract: Soil erosion is a significant environmental impact of surface mining affecting the initial establishment of vegetation, especially on steep slopes, during reclamation. Consequently, we investigated the potentials of biological geotextiles constructed from two local plants, Pennisetum purpureum and Broussonetia papyrifera, in reducing erosion and sedimentation during reclamation at Newmont Ghana Gold Limited. Six experimental plots were constructed on a 33% slope waste rock, covered with a 70-cm layer of stockpiled subsoil. Concrete gutters, lined with silt fence, were installed at the lower end of each plot to collect eroded sediment. The two kinds of biological geotextiles, “York” mat and elephant grass mat, were used with bare ground as control in a randomized block design with two replicates each. Data on sediment yield was collected after each substantial rainfall. The performance of each geotextile in reducing soil loss was expressed as a percentage from the mean total sediment yield. With total precipitation of 306 mm in the period April 18, to July 4, 2016, both elephant grass mat and York mat significantly (p < 0.05) reduced soil loss by 56.6% and 97.3%, respectively, compared to the control, indicating both mats were effective in erosion and sediment control. The relatively high performance of York mat was mainly attributed to its more fibers that provided less surface cover (70%) as well as flexibility of the fibers which enabled the mat to absorb more water during rainfall thus increasing its weight. This increase in weight promoted better drapability, with better erosion and sediment control. Gully formations at the site were primarily due to high concentrated runoff flows from the top of reclaiming benches, with time delays between completion of earthworks, geotextile placement, and seeding of plants as predisposing factors. The York mat (YM) and the elephant grass mat (EM) individually acted as cover and protected the highly erodible graded mine slope against the erosive forces of tropical rain and runoff until vegetation establishment. Even so, planning and coordinating the reclamation program such that all earthworks are completed at the end of the dry season to enable geotextile installation and plant seeding at the onset of rains, together with installation of temporary slope drains in preventing gully formations from concentrated runoff flows, are considered to contribute significantly to the general reclamation success at Newmont Ghana Gold Limited (NGGL) and similar mine sites.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effectiveness of Vetiver grass in mitigating riverbank erosion has been examined in a small case study from rural West Bengal as an example, with particular emphasis on the organisational workflow and the ground-level perception of such endeavours.
Abstract: The largely impoverished rural communities of India are unable to bear the costs involved in creating and maintaining substantial structural measures for riverbank protection. The monsoonal nature of the country’s streams and an agrarian economy based on intensive cultivation further heighten the risk posed by annual peak flows and shifting stream courses. Mitigating this requires urgent, sustainable and cost-effective means of conserving valuable farmlands and stabilising channel boundaries. Towards this, riverbank erosion mitigation using Vetiver grass has been a recent development in the country and has been experimented with in a few areas. In this article, we examine how such riparian buffers are created through riverbank modification, planted and nurtured and the effectiveness of the grass in mitigating erosion, taking a small case study from rural West Bengal as an example. We especially focus on the government policies and frameworks and local stakeholder involvements that facilitate such an undertaking, with particular emphasis on the organisational workflow and the ground-level perception of such endeavours, as these are crucial to the success and effectiveness of such schemes. The marked successes achieved through the use of the Vetiver grass in abating erosion and the hindrances encountered in implementing such mitigation projects are outlined, along with the importance of such community-based approaches to river management and monitoring. This case study can be a microcosm for similar such endeavours, particularly in the rural global south.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of geotextiles on runoff and soil erosion have been documented; however, the conditions studied to date have been limited and are insufficient for the optimization of the selection and application of geo-textex for other sites.
Abstract: Geotextiles are used to control soil losses in civil engineering. The effects of geotextiles on runoff and soil erosion have been documented; however, the conditions studied to date have been limited and are insufficient for the optimization of the selection and application of geotextiles for other sites. As a result, systematic studies of various rainfall intensities are still required. In this study, four geotextiles (coir blanket—CB, mixed coir and straw blanket—MCSB, straw blanket—SB and nonwoven fabric—NB) and a bare control group were examined under simulated rainfall events. Four rainfall intensities (24, 47, 71 and 93 mm h−1) were simulated for 60 min. The plots used in this experiment were 200 cm long by 100 cm wide by 40 cm deep at a slope gradient of 70 %. The tested soil was sandy loam, which is a primary soil type in northern China. The results show that geotextiles are more effective for soil loss control than for runoff control, especially in the case of stronger rainfall events. The effectivenesses of the geotextiles at reducing runoff and soil erosion decrease with increasing rainfall intensity; the geotextiles are most effective under moderate rainfall intensity levels. NB is the most effective geotextile for reducing runoff, while it reduces soil loss only below a rainfall intensity level of 47 mm h−1. The natural geotextiles can reduce both runoff and soil erosion. For runoff control, SBs are more effective than MCSB, followed by CBs. For soil erosion control, CBs are the most effective, followed by MCSBs and then SBs.

3 citations


Cites background from "Designing and Engineering of Jute G..."

  • ...Therefore, geotextiles are recommended and widely used to support vegetation as a supplementary means of controlling soil erosion (Alvarez-Mozos et al. 2014b; Ghosh et al. 2016)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of stress history on the coefficient of earth pressure at rest of remoulded cohesive soils was studied experimentally, using a one-dimensional compression test cell and auxiliary controls.
Abstract: The influence of stress history on the coefficient of earth pressure at rest of remoulded cohesive soils was studied experimentally. A one-dimensional compression test cell and auxiliary controls w...

310 citations


"Designing and Engineering of Jute G..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Geosynthetic structures have also proved to be economical as they use only the locally available soil or dredged material and rocks as fill material in construction (Brooker and Ireland 1965; Nagami and Yong 2003; Deb et al. 2013)....

    [...]

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study the effect of Earth's pressure at rest on the COEFFICIENT of the COE at rest at the global level, and find that, for example, VERTICAL and RADIAL STRESSES and STRAINS in the CONFINING RING USED MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT.
Abstract: VARIATIONS OF THE COEFFICIENT OF EARTH PRESSURE AT REST ARE STUDIED. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION ARE DESCRIBED. FOR EXAMPLE, VERTICAL AND RADIAL STRESSES AND STRAINS IN THE CONFINING RING USED MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT. REFERENCES' BROOKER AND IRELAND, GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS, 7-2773.

73 citations


"Designing and Engineering of Jute G..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Geosynthetic structures have also proved to be economical as they use only the locally available soil or dredged material and rocks as fill material in construction (Brooker and Ireland 1965; Nagami and Yong 2003; Deb et al. 2013)....

    [...]

01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: In this paper, the development of geotextiles and geocomposites is described and a full description of their properties is given, including properties such as tensile and tear strength, puncture and burst strengths, friction, pore size, permeability, transmissivity, creep and durability.
Abstract: This manual describes the development of geotextiles and geocomposites and gives a full description of their properties. Sections are provided on: a) polymers and their identification; b) production processes; and c) physical properties such as tensile and tear strength, puncture and burst strengths, friction, pore size, permeability, transmissivity, creep and durability. Sections are also provided on geotextile design for various structures including erosion control, roads and railways, reinforced soil walls or slopes, and basal reinforcement. A section is also provided on standards and specifications. A products directory is included.

44 citations


"Designing and Engineering of Jute G..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In fact, JGT has been recommended as a pioneering material for erosion control purposes where it has established itself convincingly as a potential agent (Ingold 1994)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an indigenous jute geotextile, comparatively much cheaper and easily available, has been substituted in bank-protection works on the Hooghly estuary in the state of West Bengal, India.

29 citations


"Designing and Engineering of Jute G..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One such major application of geosynthetics is in river bank protection and erosion control (Sanyal and Chakraborty 1993)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, different degrees of crimp were developed in three jute samples when they were treated with 18% (w/w) sodium hydroxide solution, which was accompanied by larger longitudinal contraction of the fiber, larger longitudinal shrinkage, and greater swelling of the ulti mate cells.
Abstract: Different degrees of crimp were developed in three jute samples when they were treated with 18% (w/w) sodium hydroxide solution. Better crimp formation of the fiber was accompanied by larger longitudinal contraction of the fiber, larger longitudinal shrinkage, and greater swelling of the ulti mate cells of the fiber. Loss in weight and inward swelling of cell-wall materials (typical when jute was treated with 18% (w/w) alkali) may not be considered as the dominant factors responsible for crimp formation of the fiber.

28 citations