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Journal ArticleDOI

Detection of left ventricle systolic dysfunction from shape deformity.

01 Mar 2005-Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine (Australas Phys Eng Sci Med)-Vol. 28, Iss: 1, pp 51-55

TL;DR: This study focused on the 2D echocardiograms of the left ventricle and found that the diastolic phase is short in the case of systolic dysfunction, and its volume variation is not uniform as in the normal case.
Abstract: Coronary artery disease producing ischemic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cause of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can also produce systolic dysfunction; they may be inherited as genetic disorders or occur sporadically. These coronary injuries have repercussions on the left ventricle producing changes on wall contractility, the shape of the cavity and also changes on ventricular function. This study is focused on the 2D echocardiograms of the left ventricle. Apical two chamber and four chamber view recordings were performed on normal and systolic dysfunction subjects. Individual frames were extracted for at least five cardiac cycles. After preprocessing these images, segmentation of the left ventricle was performed by Fuzzy systems. Then the volumes were measured by single and biplane methods along with the perimeter, short axis length and long axis length in each frame, from which the two indices Sphericity Index (SI) and Normalized Eccentricity Index (NEI) was determined. It was found that the diastolic phase is short in the case of systolic dysfunction, and its volume variation is not uniform as in the normal case. Also, in the case of systolic dysfunction, the span of either the long or short axis length variation is less than 0.5 cm. This depicts that akinesis is in the corresponding direction; the value of SI is less than 2 for systolic dysfunction. A sharp peak is seen at each systole point in the NEI plot and also its variation is smooth in subjects having LVEF > 45%, which is not the case for dysfunction.
Topics: Ejection fraction (51%), Ventricle (51%), Ischemic cardiomyopathy (50%), Systole (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Retrograde PDA VTI and RV percent change correlated with some peri-operative variables though no echocardiographic parameter was associated with any major morbidities or mortality.
Abstract: Background. The hybrid procedure is one option for palliating patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. As experience increases with this palliation, the physiology and its influence on outcome can be better assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if echocardiographic parameters correlate with post-operative variables in patients with aortic atresia undergoing the comprehensive Stage II procedure. Methods. Retrospective chart review on all patients with aortic atresia, who underwent the comprehensive Stage II procedure from January 2002 to December 2008, was performed. Echocardiographic indices were evaluated and correlations were made with peri-operative and hospital variables. Pair-wise Pearson's correlation tests were used to analyze the associations between continuous measures. Results. Thirty-four patients met inclusion criteria. Age at comprehensive Stage II procedure was 0.45 ± 0.13 years and body surface area was 0.31 ± 0.04 m2. Right ventricle (RV) percentage change was 45 ± 10%, eccentricity index was 1.96 ± 0.45, estimated systemic cardiac output was 7.68 ± 2.56 L/min/m2 and estimated effective systemic cardiac output was 5.15 ± 2.24 L/min/m2. Retrograde patent ductus arteriosu (PDA) velocity time integral (VTI) correlated with log pre-bypass lactate and maximum lactate (r = 0.53, 0.44). PDA regurgitant fraction correlated with log post-bypass lactate, length of intubation, and urine output on day four (r = 0.39, 0.46, −0.37). RV percentage change correlated with log pre-bypass lactate, and urine output on days four and five (r =−0.38, 0.43, 0.54). No echocardiographic parameter predicted renal or liver insufficiency, dialysis, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use, or hospital death. Conclusion. Retrograde PDA VTI and RV percent change correlated with some peri-operative variables though no echocardiographic parameter was associated with any major morbidities or mortality. Newer echocardiographic techniques may better predict comprehensive stage II outcomes.

7 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The sequential changes in shape of left ventricle (LV) in its long axis view during one cardiac cycle are obtained by processing of images obtained from a normal subject and two patients with dilated left ventricular cardio-myopathy by a semi-automatic algorithm developed by MATLAB.
Abstract: The sequential changes in shape of left ventricle (LV), which are the result of cellular interactions and their levels of organizational complexity, in its long axis view during one cardiac cycle are obtained. The changes are presented in terms of shape descriptors by processing of images obtained from a normal subject and two patients with dilated left ventricular cardio-myopathy. These images are processed, frame by frame, by a semi-automatic algorithm developed by MATLAB. This is consisting of gray scale conversion, the LV contour extraction by application of median and SRAD filters, and morphological operations. By filling the identified region with pixels and number of pixels along its contour the area and perimeter are calculated, respectively. From these the changes in LV volume and shape index are calculated. Based on these the stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) are calculated. The changes in LV area, perimeter, volume and shape index in cardiac patients are less than that of normal subject. The calculated SV and EF of normal subject are within the range as obtained by various imaging procedures.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Left ventricular (LV) shape alteration is closely correlated with cardiac disease and LV function. In this paper, we propose a feature to detect LV dysfunction globally by analyzing the LV shape deformation in systolic contraction. The feature is an index that is extracted from geometric measurement of LV shape such as the length of the long axis, the short axis, and the apical diameter. A framework for computing the features is also proposed that consists of shape model construction and motion estimation of myocardial boundary. The LV shape model is extracted from apical 2 and 4 chamber views of 2D echocardiography. The long axis, the short axis, and the apical diameter were redefined according to the LV shape constructed. An optical flow technique was used to estimate the position of the LV boundary in each frame. The classification of the LV dysfunction was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and neural networks (NNs). The 2D echocardiography dataset collected from routine clinical check-up were used to validate the proposed method by comparing the computation result and cardiac expert diagnose. Classification performance and statistical analysis, which was performed to discriminate between healthy and diseased data, indicated promising results. The global LV features would provide a strong basis for a global LV function diagnosis and a global cardiac pathology assessment.

1 citations


Georgios Dounias1Institutions (1)
10 Jun 2007-
TL;DR: Recently emerging biological topics related to gene expression data, molecular-cellular analysis and bioinformatics, using fuzzy sets theory, are reported in the chapter.
Abstract: The chapter presents recent advances of fuzzy systems in biomedicine. A short introduction is made on the main concepts of fuzzy sets theory. Then, a survey of recent research reports (2000 and beyond) is performed, in order to map existing theoretical trends in fuzzy systems in biomedicine, as well as important real-world biomedical applications using fuzzy sets theory. The surveyed research reports are divided into different categories either (a) according to the medical practice (diagnosis, therapy and imaging-including signal processing) or (b) according to the kind of problem faced (device control, biological control, classification and pattern analysis, and prediction-association). Recently emerging biological topics related to gene expression data, molecular-cellular analysis and bioinformatics, using fuzzy sets theory, are also reported in the chapter.

References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: An evidence-based guideline to assist primary care physicians in evaluating and treating patients with heart failure and a new paradigm of heart failure is described and guidance for diagnostic testing is offered.
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46 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Oct 2003-
TL;DR: This method is successfully applied to the echocardiogram images to detect the left ventricle (LV) endocardial borders and some experiments are given.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new method for edge detection in ultrasound images by using a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The input image is preprocessed and the difference in intensities of each pixel to its neighborhood is given as input to the FIS. Depending on the magnitude of differences, sufficient inference rules were defined in the system to get the edges even in the low contrast region. This method is successfully applied to the echocardiogram images to detect the left ventricle (LV) endocardial borders and some experiments are given.

7 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Oct 1992-
TL;DR: A system using two-dimensional echocardiography for quantitative assessment of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, function, and shape has been developed and simple and expressive indexes have been devised for the characterization of ventricular shape expansion and distortion.
Abstract: A system using two-dimensional echocardiography for quantitative assessment of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, function, and shape has been developed. The computer system is used for digital image acquisition, storage, and quantitative analysis. This system can acquire and store echocardiographic images with no quality degradation, assist the operator in the contouring process, automatically detect wall motion abnormalities, and automatically perform global and regional distortion and expansion analysis. The system automatically provides information on six ventricular walls, after assisted contouring of digitally stored apical echocardiographic images. Simple and expressive indexes have been devised for the characterization of ventricular shape expansion and distortion. >

5 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
C. van Eyll1, Michel F. Rousseau1, A.A. Charlier1, H. Van Mechelen1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
23 Sep 1991-
TL;DR: At a late stage, regional function becomes indistinguishable between dilated and ischemic patients, suggesting that, independently of the etiology, there is a common remodeling process responsible for left ventricular dilatation and regional dysfunction.
Abstract: The indices of the global and regional left ventricular function were compared in 16 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in 16 patients with ischemic heart disease, matched for ejection fraction and severity of heart failure. The end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes tended to be larger in dilated than in ischemic patients. However, regional systolic shortenings in anterior, inferior and apical areas were identical in both groups. The regional peak filling rates were similar in both groups and the indices of sphericity were identical. Thus, at a late stage, regional function becomes indistinguishable between dilated and ischemic patients. This suggests that, independently of the etiology, there is a common remodeling process responsible for left ventricular dilatation and regional dysfunction. >

4 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
L. Nagy1, E. NagyInstitutions (1)
23 Jul 2000-
TL;DR: The main steps of the proposed off-line method are: the enhancement of the images to emphasize the heterogeneous regions and to smooth the homogeneous ones, the extraction of the cavity's contour by using the active contour model (snakes) and then the examination of the found contour's motion.
Abstract: Echocardiography is one of the main methods used in the confirmation of the cardiac muscle damage due to coronary artery disease and the complications of the illness, but it also helps to separate other kind of causes which can produce similar effects. The obstructive coronary injuries have repercussions mostly on the left ventricle, producing changes on wall-contractility, the shape of the cavity and also changes on the ventricle's function. Experience shows that right ventricle effects are rare and they are difficult to examine by using echocardiography. This study is focused on the analysis of two-dimensional echocardiograms of the left ventricle. Ischaemic cardiopathy causes modifications in the contractility of the affected myocardial region or regions, sometimes even the whole ventricle. The main steps of the proposed off-line method are: the enhancement of the images to emphasize the heterogeneous regions and to smooth the homogeneous ones, the extraction of the cavity's contour by using the active contour model (snakes) and then the examination of the found contour's motion. This motion is followed during at least a complete heart cycle when the hypokinetic, hyperkinetic and akinetic regions can be highlighted. Due to the poor quality of the echocardiograms the results do not have a quantitative representation. Geometrical information of the left ventricle (dimensions. areas, volumes) are provided but the most important achievement is a color interpretation of the contractile rate of the ventricle.

1 citations