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Journal ArticleDOI

Determinação da razão isotópica delta13C em bebidas comerciais a base de laranja

01 Aug 2009-Ciencia E Agrotecnologia (Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA))-Vol. 33, Iss: 4, pp 1085-1094

AbstractConduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de quantificar a proporcao de carbono de fonte C3 (suco de laranja) e carbono C4 (acucar de cana) em bebidas comerciais a base de laranja. Foram analisadas isotopicamente 33 diferentes marcas comerciais de bebidas de laranja. A composicao isotopica do carbono (δ13C) foi determinada por espectrometria de massa de razao isotopica (IRMS). As equacoes empregadas para quantificar a proporcao da fonte C3 e C4 de carbono nas bebidas apresentam fatores de correcoes baseados na concentracao de acucares redutores totais em relacao aos solidos soluveis. Os solidos insoluveis (polpa) foram usados como padrao isotopico interno do suco de laranja empregado na formulacao da bebida comercial, o que permitiu a quantificacao de fonte C3 nessas bebidas. As analises isotopicas das bebidas comerciais mostraram quatro adulteracoes, sendo uma amostra de suco de laranja integral, uma amostra de suco concentrado, duas amostras de suco adocado de laranja. Para amostras com ausencia de polpa na sua constituicao, adotou-se como padrao de fonte C3 o valor isotopico de δ13C -26,19‰, proveniente da compilacao de um banco de dados de 31 amostras de sucos puros de laranja provenientes de 12 regioes produtoras do Estado de Sao Paulo. Nas bebidas denominadas repositores energeticos, bebida mista e "frutas citricas", o valor isotopico de 13C foi similar ao acucar de cana (δ13C -12,48‰), indicando pouco suco de fruta em sua formulacao.

Topics: Orange juice (52%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this study can be used to analyze food safety risks and prioritize target areas for food research and policy-making in order to enforce food safety regulations in Brazil.
Abstract: Brazil is one of the world's largest food producers. Adulteration of foods is often reported and represent an important potential threat to food safety. Because of this, reduction of the vulnerability of foods to adulteration is of high priority to Brazil. This study analyzes economically motivated food fraud and adulterations in Brazil between 2007 and 2017, based on academic journal reports. In addition, alternatives are proposed to minimize these incidents through good practices, traceability systems and the development of methods to detect food fraud and adulteration. Complex supply chains for foods of animal origin, such as milk and dairy products, were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Other products prone to fraudulent activities were vegetable oils, especially olive oil, which are high value products. Meat and fish, as well as their respective by‐products, were also involved in some food fraud and adulteration, especially substitution. Cases of extraneous ingredient addition were also reported in the coffee and tea sectors. Comprehensive food fraud and adulteration prevention requires the enforcement of regulatory systems, increased sampling and monitoring, training of food producers and handlers, and development of precise, rapid, and cost‐effective methods of fraud detection. The availability of robust methods to identify the chemical constituents of foods could be a decisive step, both to detect and prevent fraud in producer countries and to open up new markets to these products. The results of this study can be used to analyze food safety risks and prioritize target areas for food research and policy‐making in order to enforce food safety regulations in Brazil. A food fraud and adulteration review was conducted based on scientific literature in Brazil. Milk and its products were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Food fraud and adulteration causes and suggestions for good practice are presented. The results can be used to analyze food safety and protect consumer rights.

41 citations


Cites background or methods from "Determinação da razão isotópica del..."

  • ...Techniques coupled to the mass spectrometer have these characteristics, such as isotopic ratio mass spectrometry for the evaluation of soy protein in meat product (Ducatti et al., 2016) and the addition of sucrose in juices (Diniz, 2010; Queiroz et al., 2009)....

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  • ...Furthermore, the fraudulent addition of sucrose was reported in orange beverages (Queiroz et al., 2009) and passion fruit beverages (Diniz, 2010)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Within the last few years, stable isotope analysis has gained increasing importance in authenticity control of food and food ingredients. The development of the methodology from its start in the geological sciences is reviewed, the requirements and the specific features of the technique in the area of food quality assessment are outlined, and the progress in instrumentation during the last few decades is described. Scope and limits of the analysis of stable isotope ratios to assess the quality and to determine the origin are demonstrated for foods, such as fruit juice, wine, spirits, or beer. The classical approaches investigating hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotopes as well as strategies including elements, such as nitrogen and sulfur, are reviewed. The present state of the art and future possibilities of the methodology are discussed.

266 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An inter-laboratory comparison, organized by a working group of the technical committee for the analysis of fruit and vegetable juices of the European Commission of Standardization (CEN/TC 174), was carried out between fifteen laboratories in seven European countries on the determination of the carbon-13 content of sugars of fruit juices. Each laboratory received two randomly selected samples, each of 250 ml, of orange and pineapple juice and two samples, each of 50 g, of sucrose from beet and cane sources. The determination of carbon-13 in sugars of fruit juices was evaluated using the same experimental protocol but under different conditions (operator, spectrometer, period of time). The results obtained for this method were considered to be acceptable by specialists in the field of isotopic analysis: the repeatability ( r ) and reproducibility ( R ) obtained in the ring test were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively, according to the ISO Standard 5725-1986.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An interlaboratory comparison by 13 C-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was organised by working group No. 1 of the European Commission of Standardisation (CEN/TC 174) in order to define the repeatability ( r ) and the reproducibility ( R ) of the 13 C determination in sugars and pulp, isolated from the same fruit juice. Six unlabelled juices were analysed in 19 laboratories in the European Union, Australia and the USA. Three samples were authentic juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple) and the remaining samples were the same juices with an addition of sugar at 15 g l −1 (orange, pineapple) or 11.8 g l −1 (grapefruit). The sugar was prepared by mixing equal amounts of beet and cane sucroses. The different laboratories used the same experimental protocol under different conditions (operator, conversion system for CO 2 preparation, mass spectrometer). The results for the sugars ( r = 0.27%., R = 0.82%.) were comparable to those from an earlier ring test ( r = 0.30%., R = 0.70%.), while the results for the pulp presented higher interlaboratory variability ( r = 0.38%., R = 1.89%.) possibly due to experimental difficulties. Nevertheless, the RSD R for free sugars ranged 0.9–3.2% and for pulp, 0.9–9.3%. On the basis of the Horwitz equation and taking account of the concentration of the isotopes measured, an RSD R of 7–8% might have been expected. The experimentally determined RSD R values were less than twice the theoretically expected values, which is a criterion of an acceptable method. The results were therefore considered to be acceptable by specialists in the field of isotopic analysis, and the method applied was found to improve the sensitivity of the 13 C determination for the detection of sugar addition in fruit juices.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Multivariate discriminant analysis is shown to provide a convenient means for integration of the classifying information, high discriminating abilities being demonstrated for the (2)H and (13)C fingerprints of ethanol.
Abstract: The use of the stable hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of fermentative ethanol as suitable environmental fingerprints for the regional origin identification of red wines from Valencia (Spain) has been explored. Monovarietal Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Bobal, Tempranillo, and Monastrell wines have been investigated by 2H NMR and 13C IRMS for the natural ranges of site-specific 2H/1H ratios and global δ13C values of ethanol over three vintage years. Statistically significant interregional and interannual 2H and 13C abundance differences have been noticed, which are interpreted in terms of environmental and ecophysiological factors of isotope content variation. Multivariate discriminant analysis is shown to provide a convenient means for integration of the classifying information, high discriminating abilities being demonstrated for the 2H and 13C fingerprints of ethanol. Reasonable differentiation results are achieved at a microregional scale in terms of geographic provenance and even grapevine genotypic featu...

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Honey is a known product for its nutritional value. Considering that offer is smaller than the market demand, honey is relatively expensive. This fact contribute to the incentive of its adulteration by commercial sugars derived from sugar cane and corn. As these plants have a distinct stable carbon isotope composition than plants commonly used by bees as sources of nectar, it is possible to use the stable carbon isotope composition of honey to detect addition of commercial sugar cane and corn sugars. In this study we analyzed samples of C3 plants commonly used by bees, subproducts of C4 plants, and 61 samples of honey. The d13C of C3 plants values had on average of -28.9±1.1‰ (n=8), while the commercial sugars had an average value of -11.1±0.7‰ (n=3). Approximately 8% (5 samples) of the 61 samples analyzed had d13C values that clearly indicated the addition of commercial sugars (adulteration). The sample number 5 had a d13C valor equal to -12.9‰, indicating that it was all made of commercial sugars. The samples numbers 13, 14, 33, and 54 had values equal to -21.0, -19.9, -21.9 and -17.6‰, respectively. These values also indicated the addition of commercial sugars. The methodology used in this study proved to be a valuable and simple complement to the conventional chemical and physical methods normally used to detect honey adulteration.

23 citations