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Journal ArticleDOI

Determination of Zinc Contents in Iranian Flat Breads

01 May 2005-Pakistan Journal of Nutrition-Vol. 4, Iss: 5, pp 294-297
TL;DR: The mean and standard deviation of zinc content in flat breads were 12.17±1.91, 10.75±2.64, 1041±3.54 and 14.25± 3.56 mg/kg, respectively as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Zinc is an essential element for the maintenance of good health. It is necessary for the activity of several enzymes involved in energy changes and protein formation. Bread is one of the foods that have some zinc. Bread and other cereal products provide the most of calories and protein intakes of Iranian people in cities. Iranian flat breads such as lavash, taftoon, barbari and sangak generally are produced from soft white wheat flours of higher extraction levels compared to western type breads. The diet of Iranian people is more bread and other cereal products provide as much as 50-90 % of total caloric. For zinc monitoring in flat breads, 36 flat bread samples were collected from bakeries in Tehran city in 2004 and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry for zinc metal. The mean and standard deviation of zinc content in lavash, barbari, taftoon and sangak breads were 12.17±1.91, 10.75±2.64, 10.41±3.54 and 14.25±3.56 mg/kg, respectively. Estimated intake of zinc based on consumption of Iranian flat breads is 3.499 mg per person per day. Flat breads are good sources of zinc and they can supply some of zinc requirements of human body for preventing of zinc deficiency.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES).

57 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities.

48 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Zn was analyzed in major staples (rice, bread, and legumes), main animal source foods (dairy and meat products), and 9 local cooked dishes (n ǫ = 38) consumed in a rural and a suburban population in central Iran.

43 citations


Cites background from "Determination of Zinc Contents in I..."

  • ...The phytate:zinc molar ratio in different types of Iranian bread has been studied in some parts of the country (Reinhold, 1971; Faridi et al., 1983; Jahed Khaniki, 2005; Gargari et al., 2007)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of separate mixing of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hydroxypropylmethylcelluloses (HPMC) at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels with Sardary and Sorkheh wheat flours (two native Persian varieties) were studied.
Abstract: The effects of separate mixing of two hydrocolloids carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels with Sardary and Sorkheh wheat flours (two native Persian varieties) were studied. Chemical and rheological (Farinograph and Extensograph) tests, staling and sensory evaluations were performed on the two flours, their dough and the resulting Lavash flat bread, respectively. On the basis of split-plot experiment in a complete random design and using the Duncan's multiple range tests, the data were evaluated and the average of replicates was compared at the statistical level of 1% (α = 0.01). Although the CMC and HPMC gums enhanced significantly the dough quality of the two wheat varieties by increasing water absorption and reducing resistances after 90 and 135 min (compared with control), the effect of HPMC was more pronounced than CMC. Anti-staling properties of HPMC were better than CMC, especially for Sardary flour. Separate addition of 0.5% CMC and HPMC gums to Sorkheh and Sardary flours significantly delayed the staling process of the resulting Lavash bread by more than 45 and 42%, respectively. Additionally, sensory evaluation scores of the Lavash bread made from either Sorkheh flour containing 0.3% CMC or HPMC or Sardary flour containing 0.5% HPMC were 50 and 120% higher than control bread samples, respectively.

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high contents of daily intake of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg by the breads cause undesirable health effects on people and prevention of heavy metals in to the durums and breads during wheat, rice, and other agricultural productions is necessary.
Abstract: Results: The mean content of the As, Cd, and Pb in different breads were respectively as follows: Barbari, 0, 0.73, and 0.07; Sangak, 0, 0.13, and 0.64; Lavash, 0, 0.2, and 0.3; and Baguette, 0, 0.09, and 0.9 mg/kg of dry weight. The mean concentration of Cr, Ni, and Co levels in the selected breads was respectively as follows: 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 mg/kg of Barbari; 0.8, 0.6, and 0.19 mg/kg of Sangak; 0.7, 0.4, and 0.14 mg/kg of Lavash; and 0.9, 0.7, and 0.07 mg/kg of Baguette. The mean daily intake of As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cr with the consumed breads were 0, 0.5, 4.2, 6.4, 7.4, and 1.6 μg/kg, respectively. The total daily intake of the studied heavy metals was determined 17.5 μg/kg. The high levels Cr (8.4 μg/kg) in Barbari, Pb (5.8 μg/kg) in Baguette, and Cd (0.8 μg/kg) in Sangak breads were determined. Conclusions: The high contents of daily intake of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg by the breads cause undesirable health effects on people. Prevention of heavy metals in to the durums and breads during wheat, rice, and other agricultural productions in cultivation, harvest, and grinding stages, storage of flour, and baking breads is necessary.

24 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of zinc supplementation on the physical growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children was investigated in a randomized controlled intervention trial with a total of 33 acceptable studies with appropriate data.

638 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of available methods of evaluating zinc status in individuals and populations indicates that nearly half of the world's population is at risk for inadequate zinc intake, suggesting that public health programs are urgently needed to control zinc deficiency.
Abstract: This paper summarizes recent research on the importance of zinc for human health, and reviews available methods of evaluating zinc status in individuals and populations. The lack of generally accepted biomarkers of zinc status has impeded estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Although measurement of zinc consumption and/or plasma zinc concentration can be used to assess population zinc status, few countries have collected adequate data to permit estimation of the prevalence of zinc deficiency. An alternative method, described herein, is to estimate the zinc content of national food supplies, using FAO food balance sheets; the assumed bioavailability of that zinc based on phytate: zinc molar ratios; and the relation between absorbable zinc and theoretical requirements according to country-specific demographics. The results of these analyses indicate that nearly half of the world's population is at risk for inadequate zinc intake, suggesting that public health programs are urgently needed ...

405 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this review was to provide a conceptual framework for evaluating the public health importance of maternal zinc deficiency as it relates to fetal growth and development, complications of pregnancy, labor and delivery, and maternal and infant health.

321 citations