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Journal ArticleDOI

Development and Implementation of an Environmentally Conscious System for Producing Cruciferous Vegetables by Small Farms in a Hilly and Mountainous Area of Western Japan

01 Jan 2012-Jarq-japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences)-Vol. 46, Iss: 1, pp 15-25

TL;DR: The development of a system for producing cruciferous vegetables without using chemical pesticides that enables small-scale farmers in hilly and mountainous areas in the western region of Japan to grow products of equivalent volume and quality to those produced by standard practices is reported here.

AbstractWe report here on the development of a system for producing cruciferous vegetables without using chemical pesticides. This system enables small-scale farmers in hilly and mountainous areas in the western region of Japan to grow products of equivalent volume and quality to those produced by standard practices. The first steps in developing the system involved modifying and creating methods to protect cruciferous vegetables against insect pests. Crops were protected from flying pests, such as the white cabbage butterfly, cabbage armyworm, diamondback moth, cabbage sawfly, leafminer fly, cabbage bug, striped flea beetle, and brassica leaf beetle using a 0.6 mm mesh screen. Bacillus thuringiensis preparations, the use of which is permitted by Japanese Agricultural Standards for organic plants and organic processed foods of plant origin, were used to prevent damage caused by butterfly larvae, (white cabbage butterfly, cabbage armyworm, and diamondback moth) that hatch from eggs deposited on the outer surface of the screen through which they can invade. Invasion by crawling pests, such as the striped flea and brassica leaf beetles, was suppressed by covering the ground around the greenhouse with a mulching sheet to control weeds that form the habitat for these pests. Aphids passing through the 0.6 mm mesh screen were eliminated by a banker plant system employing the aphid parasite Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), a natural predator. Solarizing the soil before cultivation destroyed the pests' larvae, pupae, or eggs residing underground, such as those of the striped flea beetle and cutworm, while pest damage by vegetable weevils was prevented by inserting our newly invented traps just underground. The second step in developing the system involved dealing with higher greenhouse temperatures during summer that would result from the 0.6 mm mesh screen cover. To keep the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) around the worker within acceptable limits, a battery-powered ventilator consisting of a cart, fan, solar battery, and ordinary battery was used as well as installing simple roof windows, all of which effectively lowered the WBGTs. By combining these methods, we were able to demonstrate that the system was highly effective for producing quality cruciferous vegetables in greenhouses and in open fields.

Topics: Striped flea beetle (60%), Diamondback moth (58%)

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: This chapter comprehensively covers arthropods (mainly insects and mites), nematodes, fungi, and plasmodiophorids in the context of being prime agents for spreading plant viruses in order to understand interactions among insect vectors, viruses, and host plants.
Abstract: This chapter comprehensively covers arthropods (mainly insects and mites), nematodes, fungi, and plasmodiophorids in the context of being prime agents for spreading plant viruses. Insects are the largest class of plant-virus–transmitting vectors wherein acquisition and transmission of pathogens by an insect vector is essential to start the infection cycle of disease. Some viruses can infect plants when insects tap into the phloem to feed; other viruses infect plant cells through a wound site created by a leaf-feeding insects The epidemiology of plant diseases caused by insect-carried plant viruses involves four main components—pathogen, insect, plant, and environment. Thus, interactions among insect vectors, viruses, and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. The latest research in the field of managing plant viruses through vectors management have been deliberated with special reference to the use of crop protection, plant resistance, modification of farming practices, biotechnology, and typical integrated pest-management strategies.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: ISO 7243 has face validity and within limits is applicable worldwide and a 'clothed WBGT' is proposed to account for the effects of clothing.
Abstract: This paper presents heat stress Standard ISO 7243, which is based upon the wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT), and considers its suitability for use worldwide. The origins of the WBGT index are considered and how it is used in ISO 7243 and across the world as a simple index for monitoring and assessing hot environments. The standard (and index) has validity, reliability and usability. It is limited in application by consideration of estimating metabolic heat and the effects of clothing. Use of the standard also requires interpretation in terms of how it is used. Management systems, involving risk assessments, that take account of context and culture, are required to ensure successful use of the standard and global applicability. For use outdoors, a WBGT equation that includes solar absorptivity is recommended. A 'clothed WBGT' is proposed to account for the effects of clothing. It is concluded that as a simple assessment method, ISO 7243 has face validity and within limits is applicable worldwide.

223 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Demonstrated grower interest in banker plant systems provides an opportunity for researchers to improve biological control efficacy, economics, and implementation to reduce pesticide use and its associated risks.
Abstract: The goal of banker plant systems is to sustain a reproducing population of natural enemies within a crop that will provide long-term pest suppression. The most common banker plant system consists of cereal plants infested with Rhopalosiphum padi L. as a host for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani L. Aphidius colemani continually reproduce and emerge from the banker plants to suppress aphid pests such as Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae Sulzer. Banker plant systems have been investigated to support 19 natural enemy species targeting 11 pest species. Research has been conducted in the greenhouse and field on ornamental and food crops. Despite this there is little consensus of an optimal banker plant system for even the most frequently targeted pests. Optimizing banker plant systems requires future research on how banker plants, crop species, and alternative hosts interact to affect natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. In addition, research on the logistics of creating, maintaining, and implementing banker plant systems is essential. An advantage of banker plant systems over augmentative biological control is preventative control without repeated, expensive releases of natural enemies. Further, banker plants conserve a particular natural enemy or potentially the ‘right diversity’ of natural enemies with specific alternative resources. This may be an advantage compared to conserving natural enemy diversity per se with other conservation biological control tactics. Demonstrated grower interest in banker plant systems provides an opportunity for researchers to improve biological control efficacy, economics, and implementation to reduce pesticide use and its associated risks.

203 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2008

3 citations