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Journal ArticleDOI

Development and implementation of the Ontario Stroke System: the use of evidence

22 Aug 2007-International Journal of Integrated Care (Int J Integr Care)-Vol. 7, Iss: 3

TL;DR: This study provides guidance to support the development and implementation of evidence-based models of integrated service delivery across the continuum of care in the Ontario Stroke System.

AbstractIntroduction The Ontario Stroke System was developed to enhance the quality and continuity of stroke care provided across the care continuum. Research Objective To identify the role evidence played in the development and implementation of the Ontario Stroke System. Methods This study employed a qualitative case study design. In-depth interviews were conducted with six members of the Ontario Stroke System provincial steering committee. Nine focus groups were conducted with: Regional Program Managers, Regional Education Coordinators, and seven acute care teams. To supplement these findings interviews were conducted with eight individuals knowledgeable about national and international models of integrated service delivery. Results Our analyses identified six themes. The first four themes highlight the use of evidence to support the process of system development and implementation including: 1) informing system development; 2) mobilizing governmental support; 3) getting the system up and running; and 4) integrating services across the continuum of care. The final two themes describe the foundation required to support this process: 1) human capacity and 2) mechanisms to share evidence. Conclusion This study provides guidance to support the development and implementation of evidence-based models of integrated service delivery.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2008-Stroke
TL;DR: A scoping review of the literature on stroke transitions was conducted to identify the current areas of research emphasis and highlight stroke survivors’ and family caregivers’ experiences with transitions across care environment and some potential strategies to improve those transitions.
Abstract: Stroke affects many aspects of the lives of stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Supporting long-term recovery and rehabilitation are necessary to help stroke survivors adapt to living wit...

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fragmentation of the current poststroke chain of care could benefit from the introduction of case managers or "navigators," discharge planning, electronic medical records, and evidence-based neurorehabilitation guidelines.
Abstract: Stroke is a significant source of death and disability worldwide. The increasing prevalence of stroke survivors forecasts substantial socioeconomic burden and a greater need for comprehensive poststroke rehabilitative services. Despite the rapidly rising burden of cerebrovascular disease, particularly in developing countries, there has been limited implementation of multidisciplinary stroke units, a proven care modality in reducing patient mortality and improving functional outcomes. Transitioning from these acute inpatient settings to in- and outpatient rehabilitation or long-term care environments has consistently been identified as an obstacle to quality stroke rehabilitation. To address the barriers preventing the seamless delivery of poststroke care, an evaluation of patient-caregiver perspectives, treatment challenges, and system-wide shortcomings is presented. The fragmentation of the current poststroke chain of care could benefit from the introduction of case managers or "navigators," discharge planning, electronic medical records, and evidence-based neurorehabilitation guidelines. By aiding in successful care transitions, these proposed efforts could advance post-acute stroke patients along the care continuum to achieve their rehabilitative goals.

78 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basis and rationale for the ‘critical care cascade’ concept, which contends that the optimal management of critically ill patients should be a continuum of care through the healthcare system, are discussed.
Abstract: Purpose of review To emphasize the evolving body of evidence that supports the need for a more seamless and interconnected continuum of patient care for a growing compendium of critical care conditions, starting in the prehospital and emergency department (ED) phases of management and continuing through ICU and rehabilitation services. Recent findings The care of critically ill and injured patients has become increasingly complex. It now has been demonstrated that, for a number of such critical care conditions, optimal management not only relies heavily on the talents of highly coordinated, multidisciplinary teams, but it also may require shared responsibilities across a continuum of longitudinal care involving numerous specialties and departments. This continuum usually needs to begin in the prehospital and ED settings with management extending through specialized in-hospital diagnostic and interventional suites to traditional ICU and rehabilitation programs. In recent years, examples of these conditions have included the development of systems of care for trauma, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis syndromes, toxicology and other critical illnesses. Although the widespread implementation of such multidisciplinary, multispecialty critical care cascades of care has been achieved most commonly in trauma care, current healthcare delivery systems generally tend to employ compartmentalized organization for the majority of other critical care patients. Accordingly, optimal systematic care often breaks down in the management of these complex patients due to barriers such as lack of interoperable communication between teams, disjointed transfers between services, unnecessary time-consuming, re-evaluations and transitional pauses in time-dependent circumstances, deficiencies in cross-disciplinary education and quality assurance loops, and significant variability in patient care practices. Such barriers can lead to adverse outcomes in this fragile patient population. Summary This article discusses the basis and rationale for the 'critical care cascade' concept, which contends that the optimal management of critically ill patients should be a continuum of care through the healthcare system. In the critical care cascade, each patient is enrolled on a 'pathway' of management based on their working diagnosis and each and every healthcare provider engaged along that continuum acts as part of a interconnected coordinated team that ensures a specific endpoint for these patients in a bundled manner that seamlessly extends from the prehospital and ED phases to the ICU and rehabilitation services.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A concomitant decline in stroke and dementia incidence rates at a whole population level in Ontario, Canada is discovered and trends within demographic subgroups are explored.
Abstract: Introduction We discovered a concomitant decline in stroke and dementia incidence rates at a whole population level in Ontario, Canada. This study explores these trends within demographic subgroups. Methods We analyzed administrative data sources using validated algorithms to calculate stroke and dementia incidence rates from 2002 to 2013. Results For more than 12 years, stroke incidence remained unchanged among those aged 20 to 49 years and decreased for those aged 50 to 64, 65 to 79, and 80+ years by 22.7%, 36.9%, and 37.9%, respectively. Dementia incidence increased by 17.3% and 23.5% in those aged 20 to 49 and 50 to 64 years, respectively, remained unchanged in those aged 65 to 79 years, and decreased by 15.4% in those aged 80+ years. Discussion The concomitant decline in stroke and dementia incidence rates may depict how successful stroke prevention has targeted shared risk factors of both conditions, especially at advanced ages where such risk factors are highly prevalent. We lend support for the development of an integrated system of stroke and dementia prevention.

28 citations


Cites background from "Development and implementation of t..."

  • ...In 2000, Ontario implemented a successful stroke strategy [13], of which primary stroke prevention through the control of risk factors common to stroke and dementia was a core tenet....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of ‘holding the line’ is problematised and the power implications of such managerial approaches in the early phases of health service reconfiguration are explored.
Abstract: Health service reconfigurations are of international interest but remain poorly understood. This article focuses on the use of evidence by senior managerial decision-makers involved in the reconfiguration of stroke services in London 2008–2012. Recent work comparing stroke service reconfiguration in London and Manchester emphasises the ability of senior managerial decision-makers in London to ‘hold the line’ in the crucial early phases of the stroke reconfiguration programme. In this article, we explore in detail how these decision-makers ‘held the line’ and ask what the broader power implications of doing so are for the interaction between evidence, health policy and system redesign. The research combined semi-structured interviews (n = 20) and documentary analysis of historically relevant policy papers and contemporary stroke reconfiguration documentation published by NHS London and other interested parties (n = 125). We applied a critical interpretive and reflexive approach to the analysis of the data. We identified two forms of power which senior managerial decision-makers drew upon in order to ‘hold the line’. Firstly, discursive power, which through an emphasis on evidence, better patient outcomes, professional support and clinical credibility alongside a tightly managed consultation process, helped to set an agenda that was broadly receptive to the overall decision to change stroke services in the capital in a radical way. Secondly, once the essential parameters of the decision to change services had been agreed, senior managerial decision-makers ‘held the line’ through hierarchical New Public Management style power to minimise the traditional pressures to de-radicalise the reconfiguration through ‘top down’ decision-making. We problematise the concept of ‘holding the line’ and explore the power implications of such managerial approaches in the early phases of health service reconfiguration. We highlight the importance of evidence for senior managerial decision-makers in agenda setting and the limitations of clinical research findings in guiding politically sensitive policy decisions which impact upon regional healthcare systems.

22 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1998
Abstract: This book explores the philosophical underpinnings, history and key elements of five qualitative inquiry traditions: biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study. John W Creswell relates research designs to each of the traditions of inquiry and compares each of the research strategies for theoretical frameworks, writing introduction to studies, collecting data, analyzing data, writing the narrative, and employing standards of quality and verifying results. Five journal articles in the appendix offer fascinating reading as well as examples of the five different qualitative designs.

22,576 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies examined the efficacy and tolerability of different types of antidepressants, the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, antipsychotics alone, or natural products in adults with somatoform disorders in adults to improve optimal treatment decisions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Somatoform disorders are characterised by chronic, medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Although different medications are part of treatment routines for people with somatoform disorders in clinics and private practices, there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of these medications. We aimed to synthesise to improve optimal treatment decisions.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders (specifically somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, and pain disorder) in adults.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (to 17 January 2014). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). To identify ongoing trials, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry. For grey literature, we searched ProQuest Dissertation {\&} Theses Database, OpenGrey, and BIOSIS Previews. We handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of potentially relevant papers and systematic reviews and contacted experts in the field.SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected RCTs or cluster RCTs of pharmacological interventions versus placebo, treatment as usual, another medication, or a combination of different medications for somatoform disorders in adults. We included people fulfilling standardised diagnostic criteria for somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, somatoform autonomic dysfunction, or somatoform pain disorder.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author and one research assistant independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included the severity of MUPS on a continuous measure, and acceptability of treatment.MAIN RESULTS: We included 26 RCTs (33 reports), with 2159 participants, in the review. They examined the efficacy of different types of antidepressants, the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, antipsychotics alone, or natural products (NPs). The duration of the studies ranged between two and 12 weeks.One meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies showed no clear evidence of a significant difference between tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and placebo for the outcome severity of MUPS (SMD -0.13; 95{\%} CI -0.39 to 0.13; 2 studies, 239 participants; I(2) = 2{\%}; low-quality evidence). For new-generation antidepressants (NGAs), there was very low-quality evidence showing they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.91; 95{\%} CI -1.36 to -0.46; 3 studies, 243 participants; I(2) = 63{\%}). For NPs there was low-quality evidence that they were effective in reducing the severity of MUPS (SMD -0.74; 95{\%} CI -0.97 to -0.51; 2 studies, 322 participants; I(2) = 0{\%}).One meta-analysis showed no clear evidence of a difference between TCAs and NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95{\%} CI -0.55 to 0.23; 3 studies, 177 participants; I(2) = 42{\%}; low-quality evidence). There was also no difference between NGAs and other NGAs for severity of MUPS (SMD -0.16; 95{\%} CI -0.45 to 0.14; 4 studies, 182 participants; I(2) = 0{\%}).Finally, one meta-analysis comparing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with a combination of SSRIs and antipsychotics showed low-quality evidence in favour of combined treatment for severity of MUPS (SMD 0.77; 95{\%} CI 0.32 to 1.22; 2 studies, 107 participants; I(2) = 23{\%}).Differences regarding the acceptability of the treatment (rate of all-cause drop-outs) were neither found between NGAs and placebo (RR 1.01, 95{\%} CI 0.64 to 1.61; 2 studies, 163 participants; I(2) = 0{\%}; low-quality evidence) or NPs and placebo (RR 0.85, 95{\%} CI 0.40 to 1.78; 3 studies, 506 participants; I(2) = 0{\%}; low-quality evidence); nor between TCAs and other medication (RR 1.48, 95{\%} CI 0.59 to 3.72; 8 studies, 556 participants; I(2) =14{\%}; low-quality evidence); nor between antidepressants and the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic (RR 0.80, 95{\%} CI 0.25 to 2.52; 2 studies, 118 participants; I(2) = 0{\%}; low-quality evidence). Percental attrition rates due to adverse effects were high in all antidepressant treatments (0{\%} to 32{\%}), but low for NPs (0{\%} to 1.7{\%}).The risk of bias was high in many domains across studies. Seventeen trials (65.4{\%}) gave no information about random sequence generation and only two (7.7{\%}) provided information about allocation concealment. Eighteen studies (69.2{\%}) revealed a high or unclear risk in blinding participants and study personnel; 23 studies had high risk of bias relating to blinding assessors. For the comparison NGA versus placebo, there was relatively high imprecision and heterogeneity due to one outlier study. Although we identified 26 studies, each comparison only contained a few studies and small numbers of participants so the results were imprecise.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review found very low-quality evidence for NGAs and low-quality evidence for NPs being effective in treating somatoform symptoms in adults when compared with placebo. There was some evidence that different classes of antidepressants did not differ in efficacy; however, this was limited and of low to very low quality. These results had serious shortcomings such as the high risk of bias, strong heterogeneity in the data, and small sample sizes. Furthermore, the significant effects of antidepressant treatment have to be balanced against the relatively high rates of adverse effects. Adverse effects produced by medication can have amplifying effects on symptom perceptions, particularly in people focusing on somatic symptoms without medical causes. We can only draw conclusions about short-term efficacy of the pharmacological interventions because no trial included follow-up assessments. For each of the comparisons where there were available data on acceptability rates (NGAs versus placebo, NPs versus placebo, TCAs versus other medication, and antidepressants versus a combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic), no clear differences between the intervention and comparator were found.Future high-quality research should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of medications other than antidepressants, to compare antidepressants more thoroughly, and to follow-up participants over longer periods (the longest follow up was just 12 weeks). Another idea for future research would be to include other outcomes such as functional impairment or dysfunctional behaviours and cognitions as well as the classical outcomes such as symptom severity, depression, or anxiety.

11,436 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The implications of knowledge translation for continuing education in the health professions include the need to base continuing education on the best available knowledge, the use of educational and other transfer strategies that are known to be effective, and the value of learning about planned‐action theories to be better able to understand and influence change in practice settings.
Abstract: There is confusion and misunderstanding about the concepts of knowledge translation, knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, research utilization, implementation, diffusion, and dissemination. We review the terms and definitions used to describe the concept of moving knowledge into action. We also offer a conceptual framework for thinking about the process and integrate the roles of knowledge creation and knowledge application. The implications of knowledge translation for continuing education in the health professions include the need to base continuing education on the best available knowledge, the use of educational and other transfer strategies that are known to be effective, and the value of learning about plannedaction theories to be better able to understand and influence change in practice settings.

3,084 citations


Reference EntryDOI
TL;DR: Outcomes were independent of patient age, sex or stroke severity, but appeared to be better in stroke units based in a discrete ward, and there was no indication that organised stroke unit care resulted in a longer hospital stay.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Organised stroke unit care is provided by multidisciplinary teams that exclusively manage stroke patients in a dedicated ward (stroke, acute, rehabilitation, comprehensive), with a mobile stroke team or within a generic disability service (mixed rehabilitation ward). OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of stroke unit care compared with alternative forms of care for patients following a stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched April 2006), the reference lists of relevant articles, and contacted researchers in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised and prospective controlled clinical trials comparing organised inpatient stroke unit care with an alternative service. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors initially assessed eligibility and trial quality. Descriptive details and trial data were then checked with the co-ordinators of the original trials. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-one trials, involving 6936 participants, compared stroke unit care with an alternative service; more organised care was consistently associated with improved outcomes. Twenty-six trials (5592 participants) compared stroke unit care with general wards. Stroke unit care showed reductions in the odds of death recorded at final (median one year) follow up (odds ratio (OR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.98; P = 0.02), the odds of death or institutionalised care (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92; P = 0.0006) and death or dependency (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92; P = 0.001). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the observed benefits remained when the analysis was restricted to trials that used formal randomisation procedures with blinded outcome assessment. Outcomes were independent of patient age, sex or stroke severity, but appeared to be better in stroke units based in a discrete ward. There was no indication that organised stroke unit care resulted in a longer hospital stay. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Stroke patients who receive organised inpatient care in a stroke unit are more likely to be alive, independent, and living at home one year after the stroke. The benefits were most apparent in units based in a discrete ward. No systematic increase was observed in the length of inpatient stay.

1,349 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Thrombolytic therapy, mostly administered up to six hours after ischaemic stroke, significantly reduced the proportion of participants who were dead or dependent at three to six months after stroke and increased the risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage.
Abstract: Background Most strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred and improve recovery after stroke in some people. Thrombolytic drugs, however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain, which can be fatal. One drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is licensed for use in selected patients within 4.5 hours of stroke in Europe and within three hours in the USA. There is an upper age limit of 80 years in some countries, and a limitation to mainly non-severe stroke in others. Forty per cent more data are available since this review was last updated in 2009. Objectives To determine whether, and in what circumstances, thrombolytic therapy might be an effective and safe treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2013). We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, searched reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies and trialists. Selection criteria Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in people with definite ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We verified the extracted data with investigators of all major trials, obtaining additional unpublished data if available. Main results We included 27 trials, involving 10,187 participants, testing urokinase, streptokinase, rt-PA, recombinant pro-urokinase or desmoteplase. Four trials used intra-arterial administration, while the rest used the intravenous route. Most data come from trials that started treatment up to six hours after stroke. About 44% of the trials (about 70% of the participants) were testing intravenous rt-PA. In earlier studies very few of the participants (0.5%) were aged over 80 years; in this update, 16% of participants are over 80 years of age due to the inclusion of IST-3 (53% of participants in this trial were aged over 80 years). Trials published more recently utilised computerised randomisation, so there are less likely to be baseline imbalances than in previous versions of the review. More than 50% of trials fulfilled criteria for high-grade concealment; there were few losses to follow-up for the main outcomes. Thrombolytic therapy, mostly administered up to six hours after ischaemic stroke, significantly reduced the proportion of participants who were dead or dependent (modified Rankin 3 to 6) at three to six months after stroke (odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 0.93). Thrombolytic therapy increased the risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.11 to 4.51), early death (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.98; 13 trials, 7458 participants) and death by three to six months after stroke (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.30). Early death after thrombolysis was mostly attributable to intracranial haemorrhage. Treatment within three hours of stroke was more effective in reducing death or dependency (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.79) without any increase in death (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.21; 11 trials, 2187 participants). There was heterogeneity between the trials. Contemporaneous antithrombotic drugs increased the risk of death. Trials testing rt-PA showed a significant reduction in death or dependency with treatment up to six hours (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, P = 0.0006; 8 trials, 6729 participants) with significant heterogeneity; treatment within three hours was more beneficial (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.80, P < 0.0001; 6 trials, 1779 participants) without heterogeneity. Participants aged over 80 years benefited equally to those aged under 80 years, particularly if treated within three hours of stroke. Authors' conclusions Thrombolytic therapy given up to six hours after stroke reduces the proportion of dead or dependent people. Those treated within the first three hours derive substantially more benefit than with later treatment. This overall benefit was apparent despite an increase in symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, deaths at seven to 10 days, and deaths at final follow-up (except for trials testing rt-PA, which had no effect on death at final follow-up). Further trials are needed to identify the latest time window, whether people with mild stroke benefit from thrombolysis, to find ways of reducing symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage and deaths, and to identify the environment in which thrombolysis may best be given in routine practice.

922 citations