Abstract: Localized prostate cancer shows great clinical, genetic and environmental heterogeneity; however, prostate cancer treatment is currently guided solely by clinical staging, serum PSA levels and histology. Increasingly, the roles of differential genomics, multifocality and spatial distribution in tumorigenesis are being considered to further personalize treatment. The human prostate is divided into three zones based on its histological features: the peripheral zone (PZ), the transition zone (TZ) and the central zone (CZ). Each zone has variable prostate cancer incidence, prognosis and outcomes, with TZ prostate tumours having better clinical outcomes than PZ and CZ tumours. Molecular and cell biological studies can improve understanding of the unique molecular, genomic and zonal cell type features that underlie the differences in tumour progression and aggression between the zones. The unique biology of each zonal tumour type could help to guide individualized treatment and patient risk stratification. The prostate is divided into the peripheral, transition and central zones, which have different prostate cancer incidences and prognoses. Differences between the zones suggest their potential roles in tumour aggressiveness, but treatment of prostate cancer remains zonal agnostic. Improved understanding of the zones and their roles in tumorigenesis could improve prostate cancer management.
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