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Journal ArticleDOI

Development of a digital microfluidic platform for point of care testing

01 Dec 2008-Lab on a Chip (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 8, Iss: 12, pp 2091-2104
TL;DR: The performance of magnetic bead-based immunoassays (cardiac troponin I) on a digital microfluidic cartridge in less than 8 minutes using whole blood samples and the capability to perform sample preparation for bacterial infectious disease pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and for human genomic DNA using magnetic beads are demonstrated.
Abstract: Point of care testing is playing an increasingly important role in improving the clinical outcome in health care management. The salient features of a point of care device are rapid results, integrated sample preparation and processing, small sample volumes, portability, multifunctionality and low cost. In this paper, we demonstrate some of these salient features utilizing an electrowetting-based Digital Microfluidic platform. We demonstrate the performance of magnetic bead-based immunoassays (cardiac troponin I) on a digital microfluidic cartridge in less than 8 minutes using whole blood samples. Using the same microfluidic cartridge, a 40-cycle real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed within 12 minutes by shuttling a droplet between two thermal zones. We further demonstrate, on the same cartridge, the capability to perform sample preparation for bacterial infectious disease pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and for human genomic DNA using magnetic beads. In addition to rapid results and integrated sample preparation, electrowetting-based digital microfluidic instruments are highly portable because fluid pumping is performed electronically. All the digital microfluidic chips presented here were fabricated on printed circuit boards utilizing mass production techniques that keep the cost of the chip low. Due to the modularity and scalability afforded by digital microfluidics, multifunctional testing capability, such as combinations within and between immunoassays, DNA amplification, and enzymatic assays, can be brought to the point of care at a relatively low cost because a single chip can be configured in software for different assays required along the path of care.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current work in commercializing microfluidic technologies is reviewed, with a focus on point-of-care diagnostics applications, and the need to strike a balance between achieving real-world impact with integrated devices versus design of novel single microfluidity components is discussed.
Abstract: A large part of the excitement behind microfluidics is in its potential for producing practical devices, but surprisingly few lab-on-a-chip based technologies have been successfully introduced into the market. Here, we review current work in commercializing microfluidic technologies, with a focus on point-of-care diagnostics applications. We will also identify challenges to commercialization, including lessons drawn from our experience in Claros Diagnostics. Moving forward, we discuss the need to strike a balance between achieving real-world impact with integrated devices versus design of novel single microfluidic components.

1,016 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of personalized medicine and home testing in the developing world, and some of the strategies used to achieve this goal have not yet been developed.
Abstract: Introduction A Why POC Diagnostics? B Time B Patient Responsibility and Compliance B Cost B Diagnostic Targets C Proteins C Metabolites and Other Small Molecules C Nucleic Acids C Human Cells D Microbes/Pathogens D Drugs and Food Safety D Current Context of POC Assays E POC Glucose Assays E Lateral Flow Assays E Limitations of “Traditional” POC Approaches F Enabling Technologies G Printing and Laminating G Microfluidic Technologies and Approaches: “Unit Operations” for POC Devices G Pumping and Valving H Mixing I Separation I Reagent Storage J Sample Preparation K Surface Chemistry and Device Substrates L Physical Adsorption L Bioaffinity Attachment L Covalent Attachment M Substrate Materials M Detection M Electrochemical Detection N Optical Detection N Magnetic Detection N Label-Free Methods O Enabling Multiplexed Assays O Recent Innovation O Lateral Flow Assay Technologies O Proteins P Antibodies P Protein Expression and Purification Q Nucleic Acids Q Aptamers R Infectious Diseases and Food/Water Safety R Blood Chemistry S Coagulation Markers S Whole Cells S Trends, Unmet Needs, Perspectives T Glucose T Global Health and the Developing World T Personalized Medicine and Home Testing U Technology Trends U Multiplexing V Author Information V Biographies V Acknowledgment W References W

983 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview on microfluidic devices that may become the next generation of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is provided, and gaps and opportunities in medical diagnostics are described and howmicrofluidics can address these gaps using the example of immunodiagnostics.
Abstract: We might be at the turning point where research in microfluidics undertaken in academia and industrial research laboratories, and substantially sponsored by public grants, may provide a range of portable and networked diagnostic devices. In this Progress Report, an overview on microfluidic devices that may become the next generation of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is provided. First, we describe gaps and opportunities in medical diagnostics and how microfluidics can address these gaps using the example of immunodiagnostics. Next, we conceptualize how different technologies are converging into working microfluidic POC diagnostics devices. Technologies are explained from the perspective of sample interaction with components of a device. Specifically, we detail materials, surface treatment, sample processing, microfluidic elements (such as valves, pumps, and mixers), receptors, and analytes in the light of various biosensing concepts. Finally, we discuss the integration of components into accurate and reliable devices.

459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation mechanism is presented, which summarizes the observations, insights, and modeling techniques that have led to the current picture showing how forces act on liquid droplets and how droplets respond in EWOD microfluidic devices.
Abstract: This paper reviews publications that have fortified our understanding of the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation mechanism. Over the last decade, growing interest in EWOD has led to a wide range of scientific and technological investigations motivated by its applicability in microfluidics, especially for droplet-based optical and lab-on-a-chip systems. At this point in time, we believe that it is helpful to summarize the observations, insights, and modeling techniques that have led to the current picture showing how forces act on liquid droplets and how droplets respond in EWOD microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic physics of EWOD and explain the mechanical response of a droplet using free-body diagrams. It is our hope that this review will inspire new research approaches and help design useful devices.

366 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting.
Abstract: Reports the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting, i.e., controlling the wetting property of the surface through electric potential. The surface used in this report is, more specifically, an electrode covered with dielectrics, hence, called electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). All the fluidic movement is confined between two plates, which we call parallel-plate channel, rather than through closed channels or on open surfaces. While transporting and merging droplets are easily verified, we discover that there exists a design criterion for a given set of materials beyond which the droplet simply cannot be cut by EWOD mechanism. The condition for successful cutting is theoretically analyzed by examining the channel gap, the droplet size and the degree of contact angle change by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). A series of experiments is run and verifies the criterion.

1,522 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Millisecond mixing and transport with no dispersion are achieved by unsteady flows induced in droplets of about 60 pL that travel through winding microfluidic channels, suggesting that arbitrarily complex reaction networks can be created by combining and splitting streams of such droplets.
Abstract: Millisecond mixing and transport with no dispersion are achieved by unsteady flows induced in droplets of about 60 pL that travel through winding microfluidic channels (top). Fluorescence can be used to monitor mixing (bottom) or measure reaction rates. In principle, arbitrarily complex reaction networks can be created by combining and splitting streams of such droplets.

1,153 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents an alternative paradigm--a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based "digital" microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids, and demonstrates reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets.
Abstract: Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, especially in a point-of-care setting. Conventional microfluidic devices are usually based on continuous-flow in microchannels, and offer little flexibility in terms of reconfigurability and scalability. Handling of real physiological samples has also been a major challenge in these devices. We present an alternative paradigm—a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based “digital” microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids. The microdroplets, which act as solution-phase reaction chambers, are manipulated using the electrowetting effect. Reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets of human whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, saliva, sweat and tear, is demonstrated to establish the basic compatibility of these physiological fluids with the electrowetting platform. We further performed a colorimetric enzymatic glucose assay on serum, plasma, urine, and saliva, to show the feasibility of performing bioassays on real samples in our system. The concentrations obtained compare well with those obtained using a reference method, except for urine, where there is a significant difference due to interference by uric acid. A lab-on-a-chip architecture, integrating previously developed digital microfluidic components, is proposed for integrated and automated analysis of multiple analytes on a monolithic device. The lab-on-a-chip integrates sample injection, on-chip reservoirs, droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas and optical detection sites, on the same substrate. The pipelined operation of two glucose assays is shown on a prototype digital microfluidic lab-on-chip, as a proof-of-concept.

1,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Richard B. Fair1
TL;DR: To understand the opportunities and limitations of EWD microfluidics, this paper looks at the development of lab-on-chip applications in a hierarchical approach.
Abstract: The suitability of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics for true lab-on-a-chip applications is discussed. The wide diversity in biomedical applications can be parsed into manageable components and assembled into architecture that requires the advantages of being programmable, reconfigurable, and reusable. This capability opens the possibility of handling all of the protocols that a given laboratory application or a class of applications would require. And, it provides a path toward realizing the true lab-on-a-chip. However, this capability can only be realized with a complete set of elemental fluidic components that support all of the required fluidic operations. Architectural choices are described along with the realization of various biomedical fluidic functions implemented in on-chip electrowetting operations. The current status of this EWD toolkit is discussed. However, the question remains: which applications can be performed on a digital microfluidic platform? And, are there other advantages offered by electrowetting technology, such as the programming of different fluidic functions on a common platform (reconfigurability)? To understand the opportunities and limitations of EWD microfluidics, this paper looks at the development of lab-on-chip applications in a hierarchical approach. Diverse applications in biotechnology, for example, will serve as the basis for the requirements for electrowetting devices. These applications drive a set of biomedical fluidic functions required to perform an application, such as cell lysing, molecular separation, or analysis. In turn, each fluidic function encompasses a set of elemental operations, such as transport, mixing, or dispensing. These elemental operations are performed on an elemental set of components, such as electrode arrays, separation columns, or reservoirs. Examples of the incorporation of these principles in complex biomedical applications are described.

1,094 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting is reported.
Abstract: The serviceability of microfluidics-based instrumentation including ‘lab-on-a-chip’ systems critically depends on control of fluid motion. We are reporting here an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting. Using a simple open structure, consisting of two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass substrates, positional and formational control of microdroplets ranging in size from several nanoliters to several microliters has been demonstrated at voltages between 15–100 V. Since there are no permanent channels or structures between the plates, the system is highly flexible and reconfigurable. Droplet transport is rapid and efficient with average velocities exceeding 10 cm s−1 having been observed. The dependence of the velocity on voltage is roughly independent of the droplet size within certain limits, thus the smallest droplets studied (∼3 nl) could be transported over 1000 times their length per second. Formation, mixing, and splitting of microdroplets was also demonstrated using the same microactuator structures. Thus, electrowetting provides a means to achieve high levels of functional integration and flexibility for microfluidic systems.

1,078 citations