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Development of a lifetime model for VRLA batteries used in wind turbine generators

Xiaolin Wang1, Stephen Choi, Tieling Zhang1, King Jet Tseng1 
01 Jan 2011-pp 505

AbstractAn approach to predict the remaining lifetime of lead-acid battery is described. The battery is used to provide back-up power to keep essential devices within wind turbine generators operational under emergency conditions. The approach is developed from a circuit model of the battery. From the results of laboratory tests, changes in the model parametric values due to ambient temperature variations, battery aging effects as well as discharge current level have been quantified. Through a developed computational method, the terminal voltage and state of charge of the battery at any other discharging conditions can then be calculated. The discharge profile allows one to predict the remaining lifetime of the battery. The predicted results appear to agree most satisfactorily with that obtained from laboratory measurements.

Topics: Battery (electricity) (69%), State of charge (66%), Turbine (52%) more

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01 Jan 1993

220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is necessary to be able to predict the lifetime of a battery in target applications in order to make sound technical and commercial decisions at the system design stage. In general, accurate lifetime prediction requires more than knowledge of ageing processes and the availability of battery models. A concise procedure linking user requirements, operating regimes and operating conditions of batteries to ageing processes and loss of performance has to be used. Quantified end-of-life criteria have to be defined with the details of the application requirements in mind. To verify lifetime prediction models it is necessary to have data of the battery when new and immediately before replacement, results of post mortem analysis and detailed data of the operation. This paper describes a procedure that can be used for lifetime prediction, outlines some of the requirements for a prediction and discusses the principles of battery models and their potential use for lifetime prediction.

175 citations

"Development of a lifetime model for..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Lifetime prediction can be used to select the most suitable battery, to determine the operating conditions and to plan replacement schedule [1, 2]....


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A numerical model is developed to predict transient behaviors of electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during discharge and charge processes. The model not only accounts for coupled processes of electrochemical kinetics and mass transport occurring in a battery cell, but also considers free convection resulting from density variations due to acid stratification. A single set of conservation equations valid for both porous electrodes and the free electrolyte region is derived and numerically solved using a computational fluid dynamics technique. This numerical methodology is capable of simulating a two-dimensional cell with the fluid flow taken into consideration and requires only tens of minutes of central processing unit time on engineering workstations. Four sample calculations are presented in this work to provide rigorous validation of the developed simulator. The simulator is capable of predicting the transient behavior of the acid concentration, the porosity of the electrodes, and the state of charge of the battery during discharge, rest, and charge cycles. The model can also be used to investigate the effects of various system parameters, such as electrode dimensions, separator design, temperature, and electrolyte composition on the battery performance (voltage, power, cold cranking amperage, etc.).

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A mathematical model of a lead-acid cell is presented which includes the modeling of porous electrodes and various physical phenomena in detail. The model is used to study the dynamic behavior of the acid concentration, the porosity o f the electrodes, and the state of charge of the cell during discharge, rest, and charge. The dependence of the performance of the cell on electrode thicknesses and operating temperature is also investigated. The lead-acid system is used in the largest n u m b e r of secondary bat ter ies manufac tu red in the world. The most important market remains the car battery for starting, l ighting, and igni t ion, with approximate ly 50 • 106 uni t s sold per year in the U.S.A. (1). Other appl icat ions are in emergency power supplies, load-leveling, and more recently for ins t ruments , radio, and other electrical apparatus. The design and improvemen t of these batteries are mostly done by trial-and-error. This t radi t ional approach, which consis ts of experimenta l cell bui ld-ups and extensive testing, is costly and t ime consuming . Fur thermore , resul ts from such tests provide only global in format ion and do not provide insight into the governing phenomena. It is advantageous to develop a mathematical model of the cell which would allow one to gain a better unders tand ing of the cause and effect re la t ionships and the p h e n o m e n a involved, and suggest directions for improvements . Complement ing experimental testing with mathematical model ing is a cost effective approach to the developm e n t and design of batteries. Test ing is still needed to verify predictions of the model and to uncover physical p h e n o m e n a that may not have been inc luded in the model. But with the help of this mathemat ica l tool, ex*Electrochemical Society Active Member. **:Electrochemical Society Student Member. ~Present address: Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas AM see 2954 J. Electrochem. Soc.: E L E C T R O C H E M I C A L S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O L O G Y December 1987 Region 1, positive electrode.-poros i t y v a r i a t i o n Oe 1 [ MWebso4 Ot 2F PPbSO4 O h m ' s law in s o l u t i o n MWebo2 I Oi~ PPb02 ] 0X 0 [6] is Od)~ RT 0 in (cf) + ( 1 2 t ~ 0 [ 7 ] eexlK 0x F 0x O h m ' s law in s o l i d i2 exml a~l _ I = 0 [8] -{[ O'Pb02 0X mate r i a l b a l a n c e OC Fig. 1. One-dimensional macro-homogeneous model of a lead-acid cell 6 gions : a l ead g r id c u r r e n t c o l l e c t o r at x = 0, w h i c h is at t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p o s i t i v e e l e c t r o d e , t h e p o s i t i v e (PbO2) e l e c t r o d e ( r eg ion 1), t he p o s i t i v e e l e c t r o d e / r e s e r v o i r int e r f ace , t he r e s e r v o i r ( reg ion 2), t he r e s e r v o i r / s e p a r a t o r in te r face , t he separa to r ( region 3), t he s epa ra to r /nega t ive e l e c t r o d e i n t e r f ace , t he n e g a t i v e (Pb) e l e c t r o d e ( reg ion 4), and t h e c e n t e r of t h e n e g a t i v e e l e c t r o d e w h e r e ano the r gr id is located. Deta i ls of the g e o m e t r y are i gno red and the who le cel l is r ega rded as a h o m o g e n e o u s macros cop ic en t i ty w i th d i s t r i bu t ed quan t i t i e s in t h e d i r ec t i on p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t he grid. An e x t e n s i v e d i s cus s ion o f ave r a g e q u a n t i t i e s u s e d in t h e d e v e l . o p m e n t of t h e m o d e l has b e e n g iven by D u n n i n g (13) and T r a i n h a m (14). Addi t iona l ly , i s o t h e r m a l c o n d i t i o n s are a s s u m e d here . T h e e l ec t ro ly t e is c o n c e n t r a t e d H2SO4 w h i c h is c o n s i d e r e d to be a b i n a r y e l e c t r o l y t e t ha t d i s s o c i a t e s in to H + and HSO4in H~O. The e l ec t rode reac t ions d u r i n g d i s cha rge a r e PbO2(s) + HSO4 + 3H + + 2e-

121 citations

"Development of a lifetime model for..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Battery expected Total Service Lifetime LT,X versus ambient temperature [5]...