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Journal ArticleDOI

Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC)

01 Sep 2003-Depression and Anxiety (Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 76-82

TL;DR: The Connor‐Davidson Resilience scale (CD‐RISC) demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement.

AbstractResilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0–4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CDRISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement. Depression and Anxiety 18:76–82, 2003. & 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Topics: Resilience (network) (54%), Rating scale (53%), Anxiety (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The brief resilience scale (BRS) is a reliable means of assessing resilience as the ability to bounce back or recover from stress and may provide unique and important information about people coping with health-related stressors.
Abstract: Background: While resilience has been defined as resistance to illness, adaptation, and thriving, the ability to bounce back or recover from stress is closest to its original meaning. Previous resilience measures assess resources that may promote resilience rather than recovery, resistance, adaptation, or thriving. Purpose: To test a new brief resilience scale. Method: The brief resilience scale (BRS) was created to assess the ability to bounce back or recover from stress. Its psychometric characteristics were examined in four samples, including two student samples and samples with cardiac and chronic pain patients. Results: The BRS was reliable and measured as a unitary construct. It was predictably related to personal characteristics, social relations, coping, and health in all samples. It was negatively related to anxiety, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms when other resilience measures and optimism, social support, and Type D personality (high negative affect and high social inhibition) were controlled. There were large differences in BRS scores between cardiac patients with and without Type D and women with and without fibromyalgia. Conclusion: The BRS is a reliable means of assessing resilience as the ability to bounce back or recover from stress and may provide unique and important information about people coping with health-related stressors.

2,064 citations


Cites methods from "Development of a new resilience sca..."

  • ...Similarly, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale ( Connor & Davidson, 2003 ) aimed to assess characteristics such as self-efficacy, sense of humor, patience, optimism, and faith....

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  • ...Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003 )....

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  • ...Similarly, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor & Davidson, 2003) aimed to assess characteristics such as self-efficacy, sense of humor, patience, optimism, and faith....

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  • ...Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 10-item CD-RISC displays excellent psychometric properties and allows for efficient measurement of resilience and demonstrates good internal consistency and construct validity.
Abstract: Resilience refers to an individual’s ability to thrive despite adversity. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Three undergraduate samples (ns > 500) were used to determine the factor structure of the CD-RISC. The first two samples were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the third was used for confirmatory factor analysis. The EFA showed that the CD-RISC had an unstable factor structure across two demographically equivalent samples. A series of empirically driven modifications was made, resulting in a 10-item unidimensional scale that demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Overall, the 10-item CD-RISC displays excellent psychometric properties and allows for efficient measurement of resilience.

1,381 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Development of a new resilience sca..."

  • ...Connor and Davidson (2003) conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the CDRISC in a general population sample of 577 adults....

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  • ...…factors representing “personal competence, high standards, and tenacity,” “trust in one’s instincts, tolerance of negative affect, and strengthening effects of stress,” “positive acceptance of change and secure relationships,” “control,” and “spiritual influences” (Connor & Davidson, 2003, p. 80)....

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  • ...Preliminary analyses of the CD-RISC 1019 in general population, primary care, psychiatric outpatient, and clinical trial samples support its internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity (Connor & Davidson, 2003)....

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  • ...The Connor– Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003) is a 25-item scale that measures the ability to cope with adversity....

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  • ...One exception is the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is no current 'gold standard' amongst 15 measures of resilience, and a number of the scales are in the early stages of development, and all require further validation work.
Abstract: The evaluation of interventions and policies designed to promote resilience, and research to understand the determinants and associations, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. This paper systematically reviews the psychometric rigour of resilience measurement scales developed for use in general and clinical populations. Eight electronic abstract databases and the internet were searched and reference lists of all identified papers were hand searched. The focus was to identify peer reviewed journal articles where resilience was a key focus and/or is assessed. Two authors independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of the scale psychometric properties. Nineteen resilience measures were reviewed; four of these were refinements of the original measure. All the measures had some missing information regarding the psychometric properties. Overall, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Resilience Scale for Adults and the Brief Resilience Scale received the best psychometric ratings. The conceptual and theoretical adequacy of a number of the scales was questionable. We found no current 'gold standard' amongst 15 measures of resilience. A number of the scales are in the early stages of development, and all require further validation work. Given increasing interest in resilience from major international funders, key policy makers and practice, researchers are urged to report relevant validation statistics when using the measures.

1,337 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist, a self-report instrument designed to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, were examined, providing support for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, converge validity, and discriminant validity.
Abstract: We examined the psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a self-report instrument designed to assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Three hundred ninety-two participants recruited in a university setting completed the PCL in addition to several well-established self-report instruments designed to assess various forms of psychopathology (e.g., depression, general anxiety, PTSD). Ninety participants returned for readministration of selected measures. Findings provided support for psychometric properties of the PCL, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Additional strengths of the PCL are discussed.

1,099 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review and critique the variety of definitions, concepts, and theories of psychological resilience. To this end, the narrative is divided into three main sections. The first considers how resilience has been defined in the psychology research literature. Despite the construct being operationalized in a variety of ways, most definitions are based around two core concepts: adversity and positive adaptation. A substantial body of evidence suggests that resilience is required in response to different adversities, ranging from ongoing daily hassles to major life events, and that positive adaptation must be conceptually appropriate to the adversity examined in terms of the domains assessed and the stringency of criteria used. The second section examines the conceptualization of resilience as either a trait or a process, and explores how it is distinct from a number of related terms. Resilience is conceptualized as the interactive influence of psychological characteristics within the context of the stress process. The final section reviews the theories of resilience and critically examines one theory in particular that is commonly cited in the resilience literature. Future theories in this area should take into account the multiple demands individuals encounter, the meta-cognitive and -emotive processes that affect the resilience-stress relationship, and the conceptual distinction between resilience and coping. The review concludes with implications for policy, practice, and research including the need to carefully manage individuals’ immediate environment, and to develop the protective and promotive factors that individuals can proactively use to build resilience.

1,020 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Perceived Stress Scale showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance and was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life- event scores.
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19,179 citations


"Development of a new resilience sca..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...…correlating the CD-RISC with measures of hardiness [Kobasa Hardiness Scale; Kobasa et al., 1979], perceived stress [Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10); Cohen et al., 1983], and stress vulnerability [Stress Vulnerability Scale (SVS); Sheehan et al., 1990], as well as measures of disability [Sheehan…...

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  • ...Lastly, from Shackleton’s experiences, it was noted that the role of faith and a belief in benevolent intervention (‘‘good luck’’) were likely important factors in the survival of the expedition, suggesting a spiritual component to resilience....

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  • ...& 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: resilience; stress coping; wellbeing; posttraumatic stress disorder; anxiety; depression...

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  • ...A number of scales have been developed to measure resilience [Bartone et al., 1989; Wagnild and Young, 1993] or aspects of resilience [e.g., hardiness: Hull et al., 1987, Kobasa, 1979; perceived stress, Cohen et al., 1983]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in the authors' knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Abstract: A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless, The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

11,929 citations


"Development of a new resilience sca..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subjected to dif ferent life circumstances [e.g., Garmezy, 1985; Garmezy and Rutter, 1985; Rutter et al., 1985; Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Werner and Smith, 1992]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Personality was studied as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset to support the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high Stress/high illness executives, more hardiness.
Abstract: Personality was studied as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle and upper level executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 years, as measured by the Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Life Events. One group (n = 86) suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other (n = 75) reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Wyler, Masuda, and Holmes Seriousness of Illness Survey. Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the subjects in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control.

3,424 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Almost since the beginnings of psychiatric practice, there has been a recognition that negative life experiences and stressful happenings may serve to precipitate mental disorders (Garmezy & Rutter, 1985). Nearly 200 years ago, Pinel wrote about the psychiatric risks associated with unexpected reverses or adverse circumstances, and it is reported that his initial question to newly admitted psychiatric patients was: “Have you suffered vexation, grief or reverse of fortune?” Nevertheless, although an appreciation that a variety of stressors may play a role in the genesis of psychiatric disorder has a long history, the systematic study of such effects is much more recent.

3,100 citations


MonographDOI
01 Jan 1992
Abstract: This study was a follow-up study of a 1955 cohort of births (614 births) on Kauai island in Hawaii. Follow-up was conducted at birth age one and two years age 10 years age 18 years and 31-32 years. The final sample in adulthood was 505 persons. The sample population was comprised of three ethnic groups (Japanese Filipino and part and full Hawaiian) and 54% grew up in poverty. Births were scored for complications as mild moderate or severe. The interviews conducted with mothers postpartum and at one and two years focused on maternal educational level socioeconomic status and family stability; environmental setting was evaluated as favorable to unfavorable on a five-point scale. The 10 year evaluation assessed school work and school behavioral problems mental abilities and stressful life events and illnesses occurring over the preceding 8 years. The home environment was evaluated on the level of educational stimulation emotional support and socioeconomic status. At 18 years a psychological inventory of self-assurance and interpersonal adequacy was conducted and community records were checked for serious mental health or criminal problems. Quality of life of the home environment was also assessed. The follow-up at age 31-32 years assessed the quality of adult adaptation from community records and interview questions which were self-evaluations of personal success satisfaction with family and social life and psychological well-being. Most of the sample led ordinary lives. Some of the stressful life events in childhood and adolescence were associated with coping problems in adulthood.

2,842 citations


"Development of a new resilience sca..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Research over the last 20 years has demonstrated that resilience is a multidimensional characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subjected to dif ferent life circumstances [e.g., Garmezy, 1985; Garmezy and Rutter, 1985; Rutter et al., 1985; Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Werner and Smith, 1992]....

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  • ...…characteristic that varies with context, time, age, gender, and cultural origin, as well as within an individual subjected to dif ferent life circumstances [e.g., Garmezy, 1985; Garmezy and Rutter, 1985; Rutter et al., 1985; Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Werner and Smith, 1992]....

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