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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00038628.2020.1747045

Development of an adaptive thermal comfort model for energy-saving building design in Japan

04 Mar 2021-Architectural Science Review (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 64, pp 109-122
Abstract: In order to quantify the seasonal differences in the comfort temperature and to develop a domestic adaptive model for highly insulated Japanese dwellings, thermal measurements and a thermal comfort...

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Topics: Thermal comfort (58%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2020.110551
Hom Bahadur Rijal1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The thermal adaptation of buildings and their residents is important in extreme cold climates for energy-saving building design. A thermal measurement and a thermal comfort survey were conducted in traditional houses during the winter in the extreme cold climate of the Himalayan region of Nepal. Measurements were taken in 9 houses over 7 days to assess the thermal environment. Thermal comfort surveys were conducted over 4 days, and a total of 1,584 thermal responses were gathered from 36 residents. Passive heating effects were found in houses with thick brick walls and mud roofs. Residents of these houses were highly satisfied with the thermal environment, with 10.7 °C being the mean comfort temperature, which was related to the indoor temperature of the investigated indoor spaces. It can be concluded from these findings that people are well adapted to the thermal environment of traditional vernacular houses, as a result of which the comfort temperature is lower than the thermal comfort standards. Consequently, a significant amount of energy can be saved by passive building design and lowering the indoor temperature setting for heating.

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Topics: Thermal comfort (59%), Extreme Cold (50%)

14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2020.107523
Abstract: A comfortable indoor environment is essential for students' health and academic performance in schools. As no major concerns were raised on the thermal comfort of students in Nepalese schools, we investigated the present condition of students’ thermal comfort in school buildings in the temperate climatic region of Nepal. A survey was conducted on the indoor thermal environment and the associated thermal perception during the middle autumnal season in 2017. Altogether, 818 students participated in this survey; they voted three times: at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of each 45-min lesson. Under the condition of natural ventilation, the indoor globe temperature was close to the outdoor air temperature. Approximately three quarters of the students felt comfortable at an average temperature of 27 °C. Private school students perceived a low estimated comfort temperature, which may be due to wearing more clothing insulation. Even though there is a dress code, students reduced their clothing to adapt to outdoor thermal environment, whose air temperature is above 30 °C. This study provides the adaptive thermal comfort system for Nepalese school students under natural ventilation during the middle autumnal season.

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12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2020.107237
Basudev Gautam1, Hom Bahadur Rijal1, Hikaru Imagawa1, Genku Kayo1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Preference of thermal environment could vary with different groups of people depending on their respective local climatic characteristics that etch their thermal histories on their own. It can be an important factor to consider when a thermally acceptable built environment is created for people who migrate from a different climatic region to another. We investigated two groups of people, local and migrant, living in sub-tropical region of Nepal to clarify whether such thermal history exists and if it does, then it is important to clarify how it is associated with their thermal adaptability. A series of thermal comfort surveys were conducted for a one-month period in 2019. We collected votes of thermal perception from 395 individuals living in 122 houses. The upper limit of thermal acceptability for local people was 3 °C higher than that of migrant people. Preferred temperatures of local and migrant peoples were different under the condition of indoor globe temperature lower than 31 °C. Furthermore, perceived sweating level of migrant people was 66% and that of the local people was 26%. This implies that migrant people tend to perceive more sweating than local people. The results of the present investigation indicate that there is an evident difference in thermal acceptability between local and migrant peoples. Thermal history of the local and migrant peoples is considered very likely to affect their thermal comfort levels indoors. Consequently, it is important to consider the diversity of thermal acceptability when creating an appropriate built environment.

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9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2020.107158
Abstract: Currently, there are few studies aimed at evaluating the indoor thermal comfort of specific contexts such as that of Chile, where national standards are based on international references and are not mandatory. For this research, a field study was conducted in 19 buildings in Chile: 10 in Concepcion and 9 in Santiago. Thermal comfort surveys and simultaneous measurements were carried out to calculate users' comfort temperatures according to their thermal sensation and thermal preference. The comfort temperatures obtained are compared with the comfort ranges defined by national standards and differentiated by the modes of operation of the case studies: Heating Only (HT); Mixed Mode (MM); and Heating, Ventilated and Air Conditioned (HVAC). The results show that in general, occupants adapt themselves to the indoor operative temperatures, especially with regard to their thermal preference. The neutral temperatures range from 19.5 °C to 24.6 °C and the preferred temperatures range from 19.9 °C to 24.6 °C amongst all cases studied. With regard to the national thermal comfort standards, the Sustainable Building Certification system (CES), which is based on ASHRAE 55, and the Terms of Reference on Environmental Comfort and Energy Efficiency (TDRe), their adaptive method is applicable in HT and MM buildings when occupants have adaptive opportunities. The findings of the summer fieldwork in HVAC buildings do not match the steady-state method of ASHRAE 55 (0.5 Clo) since the neutral and preferred temperatures, as well as the operative temperatures, are below the range stipulated, although they do match the TDRe comfort range.

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Topics: Thermal comfort (63%), HVAC (57%)

8 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENERGY.2021.121509
Qing Li1, Lianying Zhang2, Limao Zhang3, Xianguo Wu4Institutions (4)
15 Dec 2021-Energy
Abstract: Building green retrofit offers significant opportunities for enhancing energy efficiency and achieving green development goals. However, a conflicting criterion exists between energy conservation and thermal comfort improvement when making optimal design solutions for building retrofit. This study presents a simulation-based energy-comfort optimization model to facilitate evaluating various design alternatives and balancing multiple objectives in building green retrofit. A building simulation model is first established to measure energy consumption and comfort level. Then, a multi-objective optimization method (response surface method) is employed to identify critical building parameters and generates a set of alternative plans for building retrofit based on green building standards. After that, optimal design solutions with trade-offs between thermal comfort and energy demand are obtained. A school building in Wuhan city of China is chosen as a case to validate the developed model, and ten building parameters pertaining to energy demand and environmental comfort are considered in the optimization process. The results show that four parameters are significantly sensitive to energy efficiency and thermal comfort, including insulation thickness of the external wall, the heat transmission coefficient of the roof, solar heat gain coefficient of the external window, and window to wall ratio. The optimal combination of four parameters approximately produces 4 % of energy savings, as well as an improving level of environmental comfort. The study benefits designers and construction managers to determine optimal solutions for building retrofit to achieve better energy efficiency and comfort in green building development.

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Topics: Green retrofit (67%), Efficient energy use (61%), Energy conservation (58%) ... read more

7 Citations


References
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64 results found


Open access
01 Jan 1992-
Topics: Occupancy (52%)

5,495 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APENERGY.2013.10.062
Liu Yang1, Haiyan Yan1, Joseph C. Lam2Institutions (2)
15 Feb 2014-Applied Energy
Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change.

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Topics: Energy conservation (59%), Thermal comfort (58%), HVAC (57%) ... read more

757 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00013-0
Kathryn J McCartney1, J. Fergus Nicol1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An adaptive control algorithm (ACA) has been developed as an alternative to fixed temperature setpoint controls within buildings. This paper describes both the theory behind the ACA and the findings from an EU-funded research project, smart controls and thermal comfort (SCATs), from which the form of the ACA was developed. The ACA was also tested in two air-conditioned buildings as part of the SCATs project and the results are presented. The results show that use of the ACA has potential for energy savings in the climate-control services of a building with no reduction in the perceived thermal comfort levels of that building’s occupants. Further refinement and testing of the ACA is required before it can be marketed.

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403 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/09613217808550656
Abstract: Using available data of outdoor temperatures in a given locality, it is possible, the author suggests, to forecast the range of temperatures that occupants will require indoors in order to feel comfortable—and this could have important implications for building design and economy. The author is Head of the Human Factors Section at the UK Bulding Research Establishment.

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355 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1976-
Topics: Field (physics) (63%)

306 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
202118
20204
20161