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Journal ArticleDOI

Development of brown patch and Pythium blight in tall fescue as affected by irrigation frequency, clipping removal, and fungicide application

01 May 2001-Plant Disease (The American Phytopathological Society)-Vol. 85, Iss: 5, pp 543-546

TL;DR: Preventive applications of azox-ystrobin at 35-day intervals or postinfection applications of chlorothalonil reduced brown patch severity, but only the azoxystrobin treatment provided aesthetically acceptable (<10%) levels of brown patch control.

AbstractSettle, D. M., Fry, J. D., and Tisserat, N. A. 2001. Development of brown patch and Pythium blight in tall fescue as affected by irrigation frequency, clipping removal, and fungicide application. Plant Dis. 85:543-546. We studied the effects of irrigation frequency, clipping removal, and fungicide application on the development of Rhizoctonia brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani) and Pythium blight (Pythium aphanidermatum) in tall fescue. Brown patch severity was not significantly different between plots irrigated daily and those irrigated on alternate days. Similarly, no differences in brown patch were observed in plots where grass clippings were returned to the sward with a mulching mower compared with plots where clippings were removed. Preventive applications of azoxystrobin at 35-day intervals or postinfection applications of chlorothalonil reduced brown patch severity, but only the azoxystrobin treatment provided aesthetically acceptable (<10%) levels of brown patch control. However, azoxystrobin applications also increased Pythium blight compared with untreated or chlorothalonil-treated tall fescue, especially in plots that received daily irrigation.

Topics: Brown patch (69%), Azoxystrobin (55%), Pythium (54%), Rhizoctonia solani (51%), Pythium aphanidermatum (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Calcium silicate application to soil containing adequate Si should not be recommended for control of brown patch on tall fescue, nor should CaSiO 3 be recommended to control Brown patch on creeping bentgrass grown on low Si soil or dollar spot on high Si soil.
Abstract: Nonfungicide alternatives for control of brown patch (caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) and dollar spot (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett) diseases are needed. Calcium silicate (CaSiO 3 ) was applied as a topdressing (2440 or 4880 kg ha -1 ) to evaluate brown patch suppression in 'Bonsai 2000' and 'Tar Heel' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and 'L-93' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) in the field, or amended into soil at 7325 or 14650 kg ha -1 to evaluate dollar spot on 'Penncross' creeping bentgrass in a growth chamber. The Chase silty clay loam (fine, mont-morillonitic, mesic Aquic Argiudoll) under tall fescue had a pH of 6.4, a high initial Si content (173 mg kg -1 ), and Si accumulation in leaves was minimal (one of five observations). Calcium silicate applied at 2440 kg ha -1 increased the area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) for brown patch by 26% in 2002 and 30% (both rates) in 2003. Tall fescue leaf P and K concentrations were reduced by CaSiO 3 and were negatively correlated (r = -0.41 for P; -0.44 for K; P < 0.02) with brown patch. Calcium silicate topdressing increased Si in creeping bentgrass leaf tissue as well as the sand root zone, which initially contained <12 mg kg Si. A positive correlation (r = 0.81; P < 0.001) occurred between creeping bentgrass leaf Si concentration and brown patch severity in one of three years, which may have resulted from reduced leaf P and K after CaSiO 3 application. The silty clay loam (170 mg kg -1 Si) amended with CaSiO 3 before planting creeping bentgrass had no effect on leaf Si concentrations or dollar spot incidence. Thus, CaSiO 3 application to soil containing adequate Si should not be recommended for control of brown patch on tall fescue, nor should CaSiO 3 be recommended to control brown patch on creeping bentgrass grown on low Si soil or dollar spot on high Si soil. In fact, CaSiO 3 application may exacerbate brown patch disease incidence possibly because of nutrient imbalances, particularly in tall fescue.

24 citations


Cites background from "Development of brown patch and Pyth..."

  • ...Curative control strategies are somewhat ineffective because significant damage is evident before an application can bemade (Settle et al., 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Naturally occurring variation in resistance was found, with two lines being the most resistant and one line being themost susceptible to most of the insects and pathogens tested.
Abstract: To increase understanding of the interactions between Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome) and its pathogens, six diploid and two hexaploid Plant Introductions (PI) lines were assessed for their resistance/susceptibility to nine economically important fungal pathogens and two species of insect pests affecting closely related grass species. Naturally occurring variation in resistance was found, with two lines being the most resistant and one line being the most susceptible to most of the insects and pathogens tested. Evidence was found for differential activation of key genes in pathogen defense response pathways between susceptible and resistant lines.

24 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...thaliana [16,27], and POX activity in rice has been shown to increase in resistant cultivars in response to fungal attack by pathogens such as Bipolaris oryzae [58] and R....

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  • ...Pathogens on grasses cause a wide range of serious problems including blast disease [11,12], foliar disease [13,14], seed rot [15], damping off [15,16], “dollar spot” [17], and root necrosis [18e20]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Field studies evaluated the effect of brown patch control on preemergence herbicide efficacy in tall fescue and azoxystrobin, a fungicide that controls brown patch suppressed brown patch and increased smooth crabgrass control with pendimethalin in both years.
Abstract: Field studies evaluated the effect of brown patch control on preemergence herbicide efficacy in tall fescue. Pendimethalin (1.7 followed by [fb] 1.7; 3.4 kg ai/ha), prodiamine (0.7 fb 0.6; 1.3 kg ai/ha), and oxadiazon (2.2 fb 2.2; 4.5 kg/ha), applied sequentially and as a single application, were evaluated for smooth crabgrass control with and without the use of azoxystrobin, a fungicide that controls brown patch. Azoxystrobin suppressed brown patch and increased smooth crabgrass control with pendimethalin in both years. This enhanced efficacy with azoxystrobin was attributed to improved tall fescue turf density and thus increased competition between this turf species and smooth crabgrass. Longer soil-residual herbicides such as oxadiazon and prodiamine provided high levels of smooth crabgrass control (often >90%). With the exception of oxadiazon at 4.5 kg ai/ha in 2000, smooth crabgrass control with oxadiazon and prodiamine was unaffected by the use of azoxystrobin. Nomenclature: Azoxystrobin, methyl (E)...

10 citations


Cites result from "Development of brown patch and Pyth..."

  • ...As reported previously by Settle et al. (2001) and Burpee (1998), azoxystrobin was highly effective in controlling brown patch in tall fescue (Table 1)....

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01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: This is the first multifaceted study of buffel grass dieback (BGD), describing the plant and field symptoms, determining factors responsible for plant death, and determining the method of spread.
Abstract: Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is an introduced, summer growing, perennial tufted tussock grass which is used extensively in improved pastures in the grazing industry. Since 1993 there has been an increasing level of dieback in buffel grass in districts of Central Queensland districts, involving red leaf symptoms and occurring in roughly circular patches. There is a potential for this condition to destroy large areas, ultimately resulting in loss of production for beef, dairy and sheep farmers who use this grass in improved pastures. This is the first multifaceted study of buffel grass dieback (BGD). Areas showing signs of dieback have previously been the subject of extensive testing for soil fertility factors, soil chemistry, nematodes and phytoplasmas, with few conclusive results. Therefore, one of the aims of this project was to find the cause of buffel grass dieback. Specific objectives included describing the plant and field symptoms, determining factors responsible for plant death, and determining the method of spread. A complete description of the symptoms was made at plant, patch and paddock levels. Symptoms of Buffel Grass Dieback (BGD) presented as a reddening of the leaves starting from the tip and progressively moving towards the ligule. The red symptoms range from bright red, to dark red, to bronze (RHSPCC red group 45: A, B; 46: A, B; greyedorange group 166: A; 177; A) (The Royal Horticultural Society, 2001). Symptoms first appeared on the tips of the older leaves and progressively moved down the leaf. The next oldest leaf then showed symptoms, and so on, with the youngest leaf showing symptoms last. Any tillers followed the same pattern, regardless of whether symptoms on the primary shoot had progressed past the point at which the tiller was produced. The amount of time from new growth to the appearance of the red symptoms seemed to be directly proportional to the amount of rainfall. That is, the more rain, the longer it took for symptoms to develop. The amount of subsequent rainfall seemed to influence the time it took for plants to succumb to the condition. That is, when there was adequate water and lush growth plants grew faster than the spread of the condition. When plants became water stressed, the condition overtook growth and the plants succumbed.

10 citations


Cites background from "Development of brown patch and Pyth..."

  • ...Good surface and subsurface drainage will generally decrease the severity of the disease, as will the removal of dead plant material (Maloy, 1993; Gardner et al., 1998; Couch, 2000; Settle et al., 2001; Truscott and Gilligan, 2001; Agrios, 2005)....

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01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: It is shown using in vitro and in planta assays that tobacco and sunflower phylloplanins have broad-spectrum antifungal activities against spores and also hyphae for two species of several true fungi.
Abstract: OF DISSERTATION Brian Christopher King The Graduate School University of Kentucky 2011 T-PHYLLOPLANIN AND CIS-ABIENOL, TWO NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM TOBACCO HAVE BROAD SPECTRUM, ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATIONOF DISSERTATION A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the College of Agriculture at the University of Kentucky By Brian Christopher King Lexington, Kentucky Director: Dr. George J. Wagner, Professor of Plant and Soil Sciences Lexington, Kentucky 2011 Copyright © Brian Christopher King 2011 ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATIONOF DISSERTATION T-PHYLLOPLANIN AND CIS-ABIENOL, TWO NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM TOBACCO HAVE BROAD SPECTRUM, ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES Tobacco phylloplanins (T-phylloplanin) are a group of closely-related glycoproteins that are formed and disposed at the interface between the plant aerial surface (the phylloplane) and the atmosphere. They are synthesized in short procumbent trichomes and are secreted to aerial surfaces where they are thought to serve the plant as a first line of defense against fungal pathogens. Here it is shown using in vitro and in planta assays that tobacco and sunflower phylloplanins have broad-spectrum antifungal activities against spores and also hyphae for two species of several true fungi. Field tests show that T-phylloplanin reduces diseases caused by three important fungal pathogens of turf grasses. Tobacco phylloplanins are distinct proteins but they have properties in common with small, membrane-pore-forming, antimicrobial peptides formed by other organisms. To directly determine if T-phylloplanin has pore-forming activity we monitored conductivity change and specific ion leakage from spores and hyphae in suspension. Results indicate that phylloplanin causes fungal membrane disruption that leads to ion depletion and cell death. Having observed broad efficacy of T-phylloplanin against spores and/or hyphae of several true fungi, but no activity towards hyphae of the oomycetes, Pythium and Peronospora parasitica, we tested for possible effects on zoospores of the latter two pathogens. Tphylloplanin was shown to be effective against their zoospores, extending the efficacy of Tphylloplanin to include water molds. In the course of these experiments we also tested the effects of the diterpene cis-abienol that is secreted from tall trichomes of tobaccos and found this compound impacted zoospores and could prevent black shank disease caused by P. parasitica when applied to soil-grown tobaccos as a root drench. Thus, results of these studies with phylloplanins and cis-abienol, two different tobacco surface accumulated compounds are consistent with their serving the plant as first line of defense systems against a wide array of invading fungal pathogens. Phylloplanins and cis-abienol may be useful for controlling fungal diseases in tobacco float beds. The efficacy shown here for Tphylloplanin control of fungal pathogens of turf grasses in the field suggests that this natural product may find use in IPM of turf and other crops.

4 citations


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