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Journal ArticleDOI

Development of phonologically-balanced and perceptually equivalent Singapore Mandarin word lists for word recognition test

22 May 2023-Proceedings of Singapore healthcare (Proceedings of Singapore healthcare)-Vol. 32, pp 201010582311784-201010582311784
TL;DR: In this article , a set of word lists for testing speakers of Singapore Mandarin was developed over three phases. But these word lists need to be validated with normal hearing and hearing-impaired Singapore Mandarin speakers before they can be used clinically.
Abstract: Background Word recognition tests must be conducted in the native language of the listener to obtain valid word recognition scores. Existing Singapore Mandarin speech audiometry test materials that are disyllabic lack in sensitivity and are not phonologically balanced. Objective The purpose of this study was to address those limitations and develop a set of word lists for testing speakers of Singapore Mandarin. Methods The word lists were developed over three phases. (1) Frequently occurring words were chosen from a database consisting of subtitles from local Mandarin programmes, and subjected to familiarity rating by 50 native Singapore Mandarin speakers. (2) Phonologically balanced word lists were created and professionally recorded using words rated as familiar in phase 1. (3) Psychometric curves of words were obtained from 20 normal-hearing native speakers and word lists were analysed for perceptual equivalence. Results Sixteen phonologically balanced word lists consisting of 25 monosyllables each were created in phase 2. Eight of the 16 lists were found to be perceptually equivalent. Conclusion Word lists developed in this study addressed the limitations of existing Singapore Mandarin speech audiometry materials. The word lists need to be validated with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired Singapore Mandarin speakers before they can be used clinically.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The size of the corpus, the language register on which the corpus is based, and the definition of the frequency measure were investigated, finding that lemma frequencies are not superior to word form frequencies in English and that a measure of contextual diversity is better than a measure based on raw frequency of occurrence.
Abstract: Word frequency is the most important variable in research on word processing and memory. Yet, the main criterion for selecting word frequency norms has been the availability of the measure, rather than its quality. As a result, much research is still based on the old Kucera and Francis frequency norms. By using the lexical decision times of recently published megastudies, we show how bad this measure is and what must be done to improve it. In particular, we investigated the size of the corpus, the language register on which the corpus is based, and the definition of the frequency measure. We observed that corpus size is of practical importance for small sizes (depending on the frequency of the word), but not for sizes above 16–30 million words. As for the language register, we found that frequencies based on television and film subtitles are better than frequencies based on written sources, certainly for the monosyllabic and bisyllabic words used in psycholinguistic research. Finally, we found that lemma frequencies are not superior to word form frequencies in English and that a measure of contextual diversity is better than a measure based on raw frequency of occurrence. Part of the superiority of the latter is due to the words that are frequently used as names. Assembling a new frequency norm on the basis of these considerations turned out to predict word processing times much better than did the existing norms (including Kucera & Francis and Celex). The new SUBTL frequency norms from the SUBTLEXUS corpus are freely available for research purposes from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental, as well as from the University of Ghent and Lexique Web sites.

2,106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A binomial model was developed, and some of its characteristics were tested against data from 4120 scores obtained on the CID Auditory Test W-22, and good agreement was found between predicted and observed values.
Abstract: Many studies have reported variability data for tests of speech discrimination, and the disparate results of these studies have not been given a simple explanation. Arguments over the relative meri...

550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

489 citations

ReportDOI
01 Jun 1966
TL;DR: The new test (N.U. U. Test No. 6) appears to have good interlistence and high test-retest reliability, and retains the desirable features of the earlier tool while doubling the inventory of items available for the measurement of phonemic discrimination.
Abstract: : Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 is composed of four lists of 50 consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) monosyllabic words each. The construction of the test followed the same scheme employed earlier in the development of N. U. Test No. 4, a less extensive version using the same type of material. The four lists of N.U. Test No. 6 were given twice to each of two subject groups--one group with normal hearing and another with sensorineural hypoacousis. During each administration, six ascending presentation levels were used ranging from -4-dB to 40-dB sensation level. The two groups yielded articulation functions highly similar to those obtained with the earlier test (N.U. Test No. 4). The new test (N.U. Test No. 6) appears to have good interlist equivalence and high test-retest reliability. It thus retains the desirable features of the earlier tool while doubling the inventory of items available for the measurement of phonemic discrimination.

448 citations