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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Development of Practical Terahertz Packages for Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillators and Detectors

01 Sep 2020-
TL;DR: In this article, two types of practical plastic packages are proposed for practical terahertz applications by using a plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC), and also by embedding a parabolic antenna.
Abstract: The two types of practical plastic packages are proposed in this study for practical terahertz applications by using a plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC), and also by embedding a parabolic antenna. A resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillator onto the top surface of which a dipole antenna is integrated is mounted in the packages to measure the radiation characteristics. The antenna gain is improved by 5 dB for the PLCC, while 17 dB for the parabolic-antenna type, compared to that of the RTD bare chip. The team also fabricates terahertz-imaging modules by utilizing PLCC-packaged RTD's as an oscillator and a detector. A perspective image obtained by line-scan with 1.25-mm pixel pitch elucidates the usefulness of the package.
Citations
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Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning from 100 GHz through 10 THz, is of increasing importance for a wide range of scientific, military and commercial applications.
Abstract: The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning from 100 GHz through 10 THz, is of increasing importance for a wide range of scientific, military and commercial applications. This interest is spurred by the unique properties of this spectral band and the very recent development of convenient terahertz sources and detectors. However, the terahertz band is also extremely challenging, in large part because it spans the transition from traditional electronics to photonics. This paper reviews the importance of this frequency band and summarizes the efforts of scientists and engineers to span the terahertz technology gap. The emphasis is on solid-state circuits that use nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality of microwave technology to much higher frequencies.

15 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the basic system architecture for terahertz (THz) wireless links with bandwidths of more than 50 GHz into optical networks is discussed, and two possible electro-optical baseband interface architectures, namely transparent optical-link and digital-link architectures, which are currently under investigation.
Abstract: This article discusses the basic system architecture for terahertz (THz) wireless links with bandwidths of more than 50 GHz into optical networks. New design principles and breakthrough technologies are required in order to demonstrate Tbps data-rates at near zero-latency using the proposed system concept. Specifically, we present the concept of designing the baseband signal processing for both the optical and wireless link and using an end-to-end (E2E) error correction approach for the combined link. We provide two possible electro-optical baseband interface architectures, namely transparent optical-link and digital-link architectures, which are currently under investigation. THz wireless link requirements are given as well as the main principles and research directions for the development of a new generation of transceiver frontends, which will be capable of operating at ultra-high spectral efficiency by employing higher-order modulation schemes. Moreover, we discuss the need for developing a novel THz network information theory framework, which will take into account the channel characteristics and the nature of interference in the THz band. Finally, we highlight the role of pencil-beamforming (PBF), which is required in order to overcome the propagation losses, as well as the physical layer and medium access control challenges.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors show that the resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillator can be passively mode-locked by optical feedback and generate a terahertz frequency comb.
Abstract: Optical frequency combs in the terahertz frequency range are long-awaited frequency standards for spectroscopy of molecules and high-speed wireless communications. However, a terahertz frequency comb based on a low-cost, energy-efficient, and room-temperature-operating device remains unavailable especially in the frequency range of 0.1 to 3 THz. In this paper, we show that the resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillator can be passively mode-locked by optical feedback and generate a terahertz frequency comb. The standard deviation of the spacing between the comb lines, i.e., the repetition frequency, is reduced to less than 420 mHz by applying external bias modulation. A simulation model successfully reproduces the mode-locking behavior by including the nonlinear capacitance of RTD and multiple optical feedback. Since the mode-locked RTD oscillator is a simple semiconductor device that operates at room temperature and covers the frequency range of 0.1 to 2 THz (potentially up to 3 THz), it can be used as a frequency standard for future terahertz sensing and wireless communications.

3 citations

DOI
TL;DR: In this article , the phase control of an injection-locked RTD oscillator with a slot antenna and a device package that reduces external THz feedback to obtain continuous frequency tuning was demonstrated.
Abstract: Controlling the phase of terahertz (THz) waves is necessary for various applications, particularly beam steering with phased arrays. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are promising candidates for compact THz sources, and injection-locking phenomenon can be used to control the phase of RTD oscillators. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate the phase control of an injection-locked RTD oscillator. We fabricated an RTD oscillator with a slot antenna and developed a device package that reduces external THz feedback to obtain continuous frequency tuning. The free-running frequency varied from 380.5 to 386.7 GHz over a bias range of 0.61 to 0.65 V. To measure the phase of RTD oscillator, we constructed a heterodyne detection system in which all signals were well synchronized to achieve good phase measurement accuracy. The frequency of the RTD oscillator was locked to an injection signal of 383.2 GHz from an external source, and the phase was controlled by the bias voltage under the injection locking. The measured phase changed from −81° to +73° within the locking range. The bias-voltage dependence of the phase change reasonably agreed with the theoretical expectation.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the phase control of an injection-locked RTD oscillator with a slot antenna and a device package that reduces external THz feedback to obtain continuous frequency tuning was demonstrated.
Abstract: Controlling the phase of terahertz (THz) waves is necessary for various applications, particularly beam steering with phased arrays. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are promising candidates for compact THz sources, and injection-locking phenomenon can be used to control the phase of RTD oscillators. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate the phase control of an injection-locked RTD oscillator. We fabricated an RTD oscillator with a slot antenna and developed a device package that reduces external THz feedback to obtain continuous frequency tuning. The free-running frequency varied from 380.5 to 386.7 GHz over a bias range of 0.61 to 0.65 V. To measure the phase of RTD oscillator, we constructed a heterodyne detection system in which all signals were well synchronized to achieve good phase measurement accuracy. The frequency of the RTD oscillator was locked to an injection signal of 383.2 GHz from an external source, and the phase was controlled by the bias voltage under the injection locking. The measured phase changed from −81° to +73° within the locking range. The bias-voltage dependence of the phase change reasonably agreed with the theoretical expectation.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Terahertz detectors fabricated in a low-cost 130 nm silicon CMOS technology achieve a record responsivity above 5 kV/W and a noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz in the important atmospheric window around 300 GHz and at room temperature.
Abstract: This paper investigates terahertz detectors fabricated in a low-cost 130 nm silicon CMOS technology. We show that the detectors consisting of a nMOS field effect transistor as rectifying element and an integrated bow-tie coupling antenna achieve a record responsivity above 5 kV/W and a noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz(0.5) in the important atmospheric window around 300 GHz and at room temperature. We demonstrate furthermore that the same detectors are efficient for imaging in a very wide frequency range from ~0.27 THz up to 1.05 THz. These results pave the way towards high sensitivity focal plane arrays in silicon for terahertz imaging.

340 citations


"Development of Practical Terahertz ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...[13] F. Schuster et al., "Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors," Opt....

    [...]

  • ...The terahertz oscillator in electronic device includes the Sibased CMOS [8], compound-semiconductor based resonant tunneling diode (RTD) [9], IMPATT [10], HEMT [11], and HBT [12], while the Si-based CMOS [13], compound-based RTD [14], SBD [15], and the Fermi-level managed barrier diode (FMBD) [16] have been proposed as detectors....

    [...]

  • ...[8] S. Lee at al., "An 80-Gb/s 300-GHz-Band Single-Chip CMOS Transceiver," IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3577-3588, Dec. 2019....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning from 100 GHz through 10 THz, is of increasing importance for a wide range of scientific, military and commercial applications as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, spanning from 100 GHz through 10 THz, is of increasing importance for a wide range of scientific, military and commercial applications. This interest is spurred by the unique properties of this spectral band and the very recent development of convenient terahertz sources and detectors. However, the terahertz band is also extremely challenging, in large part because it spans the transition from traditional electronics to photonics. This paper reviews the importance of this frequency band and summarizes the efforts of scientists and engineers to span the "terahertz technology gap." The emphasis is on solid-state circuits that use nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality of microwave technology to much higher frequencies.

313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial explains how THz-TDS measurements can be used to identify materials, determine complex refractive indices (phase delay and absorption), and extract conductivity and explores the basic concepts of TDS.
Abstract: Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a powerful technique for material’s characterization and process control. It has been used for contact-free conductivity measurements of metals, semiconductors, 2D materials, and superconductors. Furthermore, THz-TDS has been used to identify chemical components such as amino acids, peptides, pharmaceuticals, and explosives, which makes it particularly valuable for fundamental science, security, and medical applications. This tutorial is intended for a reader completely new to the field of THz-TDS and presents a basic understanding of THz-TDS. Hundreds of articles and many books can be consulted after reading this tutorial. We explore the basic concepts of TDS and discuss the relationship between temporal and frequency domain information. We illustrate how THz radiation can be generated and detected, and we discuss common noise sources and limitations for THz-TDS. This tutorial concludes by discussing some common experimental scenarios and explains how THz-TDS measurements can be used to identify materials, determine complex refractive indices (phase delay and absorption), and extract conductivity.

292 citations


"Development of Practical Terahertz ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recently the remarkable development of terahertz sources and detectors has been made for these applications, many of which are based on optical technologies [5][6] and multipliers [7], and, in parallel, many researchers have designed smaller and more functional terahertz electronic devices for practicality....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 24 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 300 GHz using a uni-travelling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) emitter and Schottky barrier diode detector was designed and fabricated for larger bandwidth.
Abstract: Presented is 24 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 300 GHz using a uni-travelling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) emitter and Schottky barrier diode detector, which were designed and fabricated for larger bandwidth. Both the emitter and the detector were fabricated on the same epi-layer of the UTC-PD. At the link distance of around 50 cm, a bit error rate of less than 1 × 10 -10 has been achieved with the transmitted power from the UTC-PD of less than 200 μW and effective antenna gains of 40 and 35 dBi in the emitter and detector sides, respectively.

192 citations


"Development of Practical Terahertz ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recently the remarkable development of terahertz sources and detectors has been made for these applications, many of which are based on optical technologies [5][6] and multipliers [7], and, in parallel, many researchers have designed smaller and more functional terahertz electronic devices for practicality....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic system architecture for THz wireless links with bandwidths of more than 50 GHz into optical networks is discussed and the role of PBF is highlighted, which is required in order to overcome the propagation losses, as well as the physical layer and medium access control challenges.
Abstract: This article discusses the basic system architecture for THz wireless links with bandwidths of more than 50 GHz into optical networks. New design principles and breakthrough technologies are required in order to demonstrate terabit- per-second data rates at near zero latency using the proposed system concept. Specifically, we present the concept of designing the baseband signal processing for both the optical and wireless links and using an E2E error correction approach for the combined link. We provide two possible electro-optical baseband interface architectures, namely transparent optical-link and digital- link architectures, which are currently under investigation. THz wireless link requirements are given as well as the main principles and research directions for the development of a new generation of transceiver front-ends that will be capable of operating at ultra-high spectral efficiency by employing higher-order modulation schemes. Moreover, we discuss the need for developing a novel THz network information theory framework, which will take into account the channel characteristics and the nature of interference in the THz band. Finally, we highlight the role of PBF, which is required in order to overcome the propagation losses, as well as the physical layer and medium access control challenges.

190 citations


"Development of Practical Terahertz ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In addition, terahertz electronic devices highly likely pave the way to nextgeneration wireless networks, aiming for higher speed and multi-channel beyond 5G [4]....

    [...]