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Journal ArticleDOI

Development of Radiation Hard ${\rm N}^{+}$ -on-P Silicon Microstrip Sensors for Super LHC

01 Apr 2009-IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE)-Vol. 56, Iss: 2, pp 468-473

AbstractRadiation tolerance up to 1015 1-MeV neq/cm2 is required for the silicon microstrip sensors to be operated at the Super LHC experiment. As a candidate for such sensors, we are investigating non-inverting n+-on-p sensors. We manufactured sample sensors of 1 times 1 cm in 4" and 6" processes with implementing different interstrip electrical isolation structures. Industrial high resistive p-type wafers from FZ and MCZ growth are tested. They are different in crystal orientations lang100rang and lang111rang with different wafer resistivities. The sensors were irradiated with 70-MeV protons and characterized in views of the leakage current increase, noise figures, electrical strip isolation, full depletion voltage evolution, and charge collection efficiency.

Topics: Microstrip (51%), Resistive touchscreen (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We have developed a novel and highly radiation-tolerant n-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments such as in the Super Large Hadron Collider. The sensors are designed for a fluence of 1×1015 neq/cm2 and are fabricated from p-type, FZ, 6 in. (150 mm) wafers onto which we lay out a single 9.75 cm×9.75 cm large-area sensor and several 1 cm×1 cm miniature sensors with various n-strip isolation structures. By evaluating the sensors both pre- and post-irradiation by protons and neutrons, we find that the full depletion voltage evolves to approximately 800 V and that the n-strip isolation depends on the p+ concentration. In addition, we characterize the interstrip resistance, interstrip capacitance and the punch-through-protection (PTP) voltage. The first fabrication batch allowed us to identify the weak spots in the PTP and the stereo strip layouts. By understanding the source of the weakness, the mask was modified accordingly. After modification, the follow-up fabrication batches and the latest fabrication of about 30 main sensors and associated miniature sensors have shown good performance, with no sign of microdischarge up to 1000 V.

76 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We are developing n+-in-p, p-bulk and n-readout, microstrip sensors, fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics, as a non-inverting radiation hard silicon detector for the ATLAS tracker upgrade at the super-LHC (sLHC) proposed facility. The bulk radiation damage after neutron and proton irradiations is characterized with the leakage current, charge collection and full depletion voltage. The detectors should provide acceptable signal, signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 15, after the integrated luminosity of 6000 fb−1, which is twice the sLHC integrated luminosity goal.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We are developing n+-in-p, p-bulk and n-readout, microstrip sensors as a non-inverting radiation hard silicon detector for the ATLAS Tracker Upgrade at the super LHC experiment. The surface radiation damages of the sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics are characterized on the interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance and punch-through protection evolution. The detector should provide acceptable strip isolation, exceeding the input impedance of the signal readout chip ∼1 kΩ, after the integrated luminosity of 6 ab−1, which is twice the luminosity goal.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electrical signals induced by pulses of a focused IR (λ = 1064 nm) laser beam in strip detectors were measured using a wide bandwidth current amplifier. The laser beam was focused to a spot with a diameter of about 8 μm and directed to the detector surface. The detector was mounted on a high precision moving stage allowing measurements of signals induced by a laser beam directed to different locations on the detector surface. Measurements were performed with miniature micro-strip detectors made by implanting n+ type readout strips on p-type silicon bulk (n+-p). Special type of detectors, with implants not fully covered by metal, allowed TCT measurements with a laser beam directed on the implant. The detectors were irradiated with reactor neutrons up to fluences of 51015 neq/cm2. The signals were measured at reverse bias voltages up to 1000 V. The measurements were repeated after several annealing steps at 60°C. Strong dependence of charge collection on distance of laser beam from the implant was observed in heavily irradiated detectors indicating that charge multiplication is increased at implant edges.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Charge collection measurements with silicon detectors with implanted n-type readout strips in p-type silicon bulk (n+-p) are presented. Detectors were irradiated with 191 MeV pions at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen in Switzerland. Signals induced by electrons from 90Sr source were measured with SCT128 chip. Collected charge and detector current were measured after several annealing steps summing up to over 10000 minutes at 60?C. It was observed that irradiation of these detectors with pions results in only ~ 30% of the increase of Vfd seen after irradiation with neutrons to the same NIEL equivalent fluence. Charge multiplication effects in pion irradiated detectors were seen only after long accelerated annealing time. Both effects are consistent with smaller space-charge introduction rates after irradiation with charged hadrons, characteristic for oxygenated detector material. It was confirmed that, at sufficient bias voltage, reverse annealing after pion irradiation does not represent a problem for application of these detectors in trackers at upgraded LHC.

8 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
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Abstract: The RD48 (ROSE) collaboration has succeeded to develop radiation hard silicon detectors, capable to withstand the harsh hadron fluences in the tracking areas of LHC experiments. In order to reach this objective, a defect engineering technique was employed resulting in the development of Oxygen enriched FZ silicon (DOFZ), ensuring the necessary O-enrichment of about 2×1017 O/cm3 in the normal detector processing. Systematic investigations have been carried out on various standard and oxygenated silicon diodes with neutron, proton and pion irradiation up to a fluence of 5×1014 cm−2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent). Major focus is on the changes of the effective doping concentration (depletion voltage). Other aspects (reverse current, charge collection) are covered too and the appreciable benefits obtained with DOFZ silicon in radiation tolerance for charged hadrons are outlined. The results are reliably described by the “Hamburg model”: its application to LHC experimental conditions is shown, demonstrating the superiority of the defect engineered silicon. Microscopic aspects of damage effects are also discussed, including differences due to charged and neutral hadron irradiation.

387 citations


"Development of Radiation Hard ${\rm..." refers background in this paper

  • ...3 to , which is consistent with the value known [14] for n-type wafers....

    [...]

  • ...Oxygen richness is one of the parameters to determine the radiation hardness [14]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
A. Abdesselam1, T. Akimoto2, Phillip Allport3, Jorge Alonso4  +270 moreInstitutions (31)
Abstract: This paper describes the silicon microstrip modules in the barrel section of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The module requirements, components and assembly techniques are given, as well as first results of the module performance on the fully assembled barrels that make up the detector being installed in the ATLAS experiment.

158 citations


"Development of Radiation Hard ${\rm..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In the ATLAS detector, Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) employs silicon microstrip sensors in the region between 30 cm and 51 cm from the beam pipe [1], [2]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Francesca Campabadal1, Celeste Fleta1, M.J. Key1, Manuel Lozano1  +151 moreInstitutions (20)
Abstract: The ABCD3TA is a 128-channel ASIC with binary architecture for the readout of silicon strip particle detectors in the Semiconductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chip comprises fast front-end and amplitude discriminator circuits using bipolar devices, a binary pipeline for first level trigger latency, a second level derandomising buffer and data compression circuitry based on CMOS devices. It has been designed and fabricated in a BiCMOS radiation resistant process. Extensive testing of the ABCD3TA chips assembled into detector modules show that the design meets the specifications and maintains the required performance after irradiation up to a total ionising dose of 10 Mrad and a 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1014 n/cm2, corresponding to 10 years of operation of the LHC at its design luminosity. Wafer screening and quality assurance procedures have been developed and implemented in large volume production to ensure that the chips assembled into modules meet the rigorous acceptance criteria.

151 citations


"Development of Radiation Hard ${\rm..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Since the current of the irradiated samples increases substantially and may deteriorate the noise performance, we measured the noise using an SCT ABCD3T readout chip and DAQ system [16], [17]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Irradiation scenarios were simulated in order to evaluate different technology and design options for silicon strip detectors exposed to a high luminosity environment. Two-dimensional process and device simulations were performed to get an insight into the device behaviour. The boundary condition of the free oxide regions between the strips was evaluated thoroughly to obtain correct field distributions. Using these results the formation of electron accumulation layers on the surface of the p-side and the depletion voltage dependence on the strip geometry can be explained. We investigated the “blocking implant” and the “spray implant” techniques as promising candidates for the n-side isolation of irradiated detectors. The main drawback of the “blocking implanted” devices is the increase of the electric field with increasing oxide charges. This implies the danger of impact ionization in irradiated devices. A “spray implanted” isolation layer leads to the highest electric field in the non-irradiated state which has the advantage of a better testability. Small gaps between strips as used in charge division readout reduce electric fields and leakage currents.

140 citations


"Development of Radiation Hard ${\rm..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Technologies such as p-stop and p-spray [8], [9] have been successfully adopted for double-sided -n- strip sensors and -on-n sensors....

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Journal Article
Abstract: This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 922percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

122 citations


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