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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0TA11068J

Development of solid electrolytes in Zn–air and Al–air batteries: from material selection to performance improvement strategies

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Materials Chemistry (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 9, Iss: 8, pp 4415-4453
Abstract: Aqueous-based Zn–air and Al–air batteries are considered to be promising post-lithium energy storage technologies owing to their safety, environmental friendliness, affordability, and high energy density. Nevertheless, traditional liquid Zn–air and Al–air batteries have problems such as volatilization and leakage, as well as the realization of miniaturized, portable, and wearable electronic devices. The practice of optimizing the battery structure by replacing the flowing electrolyte with a solid type has emerged and made significant progress in the past ten years. Herein, this review provides a guiding and comprehensive summary of the basic understanding and manufacturing ideas of the solid electrolyte for Zn–air and Al–air batteries. First, two types of alkaline solid electrolytes are distinguished, including alkaline anion exchange membranes (AAEMs) and gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs). Then, three sorts of major framework materials (i.e., artificial organic polymer, biomass materials, and inorganic materials) are reviewed and discussed. Most importantly, the latest research progress and improvement strategies to enhance the electrolyte membrane performances involving conductivity, mechanical properties, and electrochemical stability are also highlighted. Finally, challenges and prospects for the future development of alkaline solid electrolytes are emphasized.

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7 results found



Open access
01 Jun 2017-
Abstract: Won the Third Prize (Category: Innovation ) in the "Challenge Cup" National Competition – Hong Kong Regional Final, Hong Kong University Student Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition 2017 organized by the Hong Kong New Generation Cultural Association.

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Topics: Competition (economics) (50%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENSM.2021.10.020
Chaowei Li1, Litong Wang1, Zhang Jingchao, Zhang Daojun  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Rechargeable aqueous zinc (Zn) batteries have captured extensive attentions as auspicious next generation energy storage devices due to the merits of low cost, high capacity, inherent safety, and abundant resources. However, the humble poor durability and low coulombic efficiency of Zn anodes seriously hinder their wide applications. Zn batteries can be classified into two classifications: alkaline and neutral Zn batteries, according to the nature of electrolyte. Due to the different electrochemical behaviors of Zn anodes in the alkaline and neutral electrolytes, the fundamental comprehensions of Zn anodes in both electrolytes remain dubious. In this review, the fundamental reactions of Zn anodes in alkaline and neutral electrolytes were elucidated in detail. Specifically, the primary reasons (including surface passivation, dendritic growth, hydrogen evolution, and shape change in the Zn stripping/plating procedure) which lead to the pitiable durability and low coulombic efficiency of Zn anodes in both electrolytes were profoundly illuminated, respectively. Moreover, the most recent progresses about the Zn anodes protective strategies to settle the above critical problems were systematically recapitulated and clarified, including the surface modification, structural and constitution design, electrolyte modification and other protective strategies. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in high-performance Zn anodes are further expected. This review will shed light on the exploit of advanced Zn anodes for high-performance Zn batteries in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APSUSC.2021.151486
Wendi Chen1, Heping Yu1, Shengming Chang1, Wenming Li1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Transformation from crude wheat straw to the efficient bifunctional catalysts was realized to obtain a unique composite structure. The ideal designed construction of bimetallic phosphide nanoparticles embedding in N, P dual-doped carbon matrix exhibited the impressive performances for catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This catalyst has been used to assemble metal-air batteries. The rechargeable liquid zinc-air battery achieved the power density of 122.5 mW cm−2 and charge–discharge cycled for over 110 h. The rechargeable solid-state zinc-air battery exhibited the power density of 55.6 mW cm−2 and charge–discharge cycled for over 35 h. In addition, it was also investigated in the aluminum-air battery and exhibited excellent performances. This work has paved the way of preparing efficient metal-air battery catalyst from low-cost agricultural by-products.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1CC04337D
Lian-Wei Luo1, Chong Zhang2, Chong Zhang1, Xianyong Wu2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: We demonstrate a disposable aqueous primary battery chemistry that comprises environmentally benign materials of the sulfur cathode and Zn anode in a 1 M ZnCl2 aqueous electrolyte. The Zn–S battery shows a high energy density of 1083.3 Wh kg−1 for sulphur with a flat discharge voltage plateau around 0.7 V. When operating at a high mass loading of 8.3 mg cm−2 for sulfur in the cathode, the battery exhibits a very high areal capacity of 11.4 mA h cm−2 and areal energy of 7.7 mW h cm−2.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (58%), Anode (53%), Cathode (51%)

References
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303 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/451652A
Michel Armand1, Jean-Marie Tarascon1Institutions (1)
06 Feb 2008-Nature
Abstract: Researchers must find a sustainable way of providing the power our modern lifestyles demand.

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13,749 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B917103G
Abstract: The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references)

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9,151 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR020730K
Martin Winter1, Ralph J. BroddInstitutions (1)
28 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

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5,595 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C1CS15228A
Fangyi Cheng1, Jun Chen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Because of the remarkably high theoretical energy output, metal–air batteries represent one class of promising power sources for applications in next-generation electronics, electrified transportation and energy storage of smart grids. The most prominent feature of a metal–air battery is the combination of a metal anode with high energy density and an air electrode with open structure to draw cathode active materials (i.e., oxygen) from air. In this critical review, we present the fundamentals and recent advances related to the fields of metal–air batteries, with a focus on the electrochemistry and materials chemistry of air electrodes. The battery electrochemistry and catalytic mechanism of oxygen reduction reactions are discussed on the basis of aqueous and organic electrolytes. Four groups of extensively studied catalysts for the cathode oxygen reduction/evolution are selectively surveyed from materials chemistry to electrode properties and battery application: Pt and Pt-based alloys (e.g., PtAu nanoparticles), carbonaceous materials (e.g., graphene nanosheets), transition-metal oxides (e.g., Mn-based spinels and perovskites), and inorganic–organic composites (e.g., metal macrocycle derivatives). The design and optimization of air-electrode structure are also outlined. Furthermore, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of research directions are proposed for further development of metal–air batteries (219 references).

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (57%), Anode (52%), Cathode (52%) ... read more

1,887 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2004.12.022
Willett Kempton1, Jasna Tomić1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10–50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8–38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

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Topics: Wind power (65%), Distributed generation (64%), Vehicle-to-grid (58%) ... read more

1,886 Citations