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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MBIO.00230-21

Development of Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Nanoparticles as a Vaccine Candidate against SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Ferrets.

02 Mar 2021-Mbio (American Society for Microbiology)-Vol. 12, Iss: 2, pp 02
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of the CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, enters host cells via the interaction of its receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Therefore, the RBD is a promising vaccine target to induce protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we report the development of an RBD protein-based vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 using self-assembling Helicobacter pylori-bullfrog ferritin nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system. RBD-ferritin protein purified from mammalian cells efficiently assembled into 24-mer nanoparticles. Sixteen- to 20-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with RBD-ferritin nanoparticles (RBD nanoparticles) by intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. All vaccinated ferrets with RBD nanoparticles produced potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, vaccinated ferrets demonstrated efficient protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, showing no fever, body weight loss, or clinical symptoms. Furthermore, vaccinated ferrets showed rapid clearance of infectious virus in nasal washes and lungs as well as of viral RNA in respiratory organs. This study demonstrates that spike RBD-nanoparticles are an effective protein vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Coronavirus (53%)
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10 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.09.439166
10 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ). RFN vaccination of macaques using a two-dose regimen resulted in robust, predominantly Th1 CD4+ T cell responses and reciprocal peak mean neutralizing antibody titers of 14,000-21,000. Rapid control of viral replication was achieved in the upper and lower airways of animals after high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge, with undetectable replication within four days in 7 of 8 animals receiving 50 {micro}g RFN. Cross-neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 decreased only [~]2-fold relative to USA-WA1. In addition, neutralizing, effector antibody and cellular responses targeted the heterotypic SARS-CoV-1, highlighting the broad immunogenicity of RFN-ALFQ for SARS-like betacoronavirus vaccine development. Significance StatementThe emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) that reduce the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines is a major threat to pandemic control. We evaluate a SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain ferritin nanoparticle protein vaccine (RFN) in a nonhuman primate challenge model that addresses the need for a next-generation, efficacious vaccine with increased pan-SARS breadth of coverage. RFN, adjuvanted with a liposomal-QS21 formulation (ALFQ), elicits humoral and cellular immune responses exceeding those of current vaccines in terms of breadth and potency and protects against high-dose respiratory tract challenge. Neutralization activity against the B.1.351 VOC within two-fold of wild-type virus and against SARS-CoV-1 indicate exceptional breadth. Our results support consideration of RFN for SARS-like betacoronavirus vaccine development.

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Topics: Vaccination (52%), Neutralizing antibody (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2106433118
Abstract: Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ). RFN vaccination of macaques using a two-dose regimen resulted in robust, predominantly Th1 CD4+ T cell responses and reciprocal peak mean serum neutralizing antibody titers of 14,000 to 21,000. Rapid control of viral replication was achieved in the upper and lower airways of animals after high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge, with undetectable replication within 4 d in seven of eight animals receiving 50 µg of RFN. Cross-neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 decreased only approximately twofold relative to WA1/2020. In addition, neutralizing, effector antibody and cellular responses targeted the heterotypic SARS-CoV-1, highlighting the broad immunogenicity of RFN-ALFQ for SARS-CoV-like Sarbecovirus vaccine development.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (55%), Vaccination (52%), Immunogenicity (51%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.14348/MOLCELLS.2021.0094
Taewoo Kim1, Jeong Seok Lee, Young Seok Ju1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the identity, functional characteristics and therapeutic targets of the virus and the diseases, appropriate infection models that recapitulate the in vivo pathophysiology of the viral infection are necessary. This article reviews the various infection models, including Vero cells, human cell lines, organoids, and animal models, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. This knowledge will be helpful for establishing an efficient system for defense against emerging infectious diseases.

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Topics: Coronavirus (54%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41541-021-00393-6
28 Oct 2021-
Abstract: Vaccination of the global population against COVID-19 is a great scientific, logistical, and moral challenge. Despite the rapid development and authorization of several full-length Spike (S) protein vaccines, the global demand outweighs the current supply and there is a need for safe, potent, high-volume, affordable vaccines that can fill this gap, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Whether SARS-CoV-2 S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based vaccines could fill this gap has been debated, especially with regards to its suitability to protect against emerging viral variants of concern. Given a predominance for elicitation of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that target RBD following natural infection or vaccination, a key biomarker of protection, there is merit for selection of RBD as a sole vaccine immunogen. With its high-yielding production and manufacturing potential, RBD-based vaccines offer an abundance of temperature-stable doses at an affordable cost. In addition, as the RBD preferentially focuses the immune response to potent and recently recognized cross-protective determinants, this domain may be central to the development of future pan-sarbecovirus vaccines. In this study, we review the data supporting the non-inferiority of RBD as a vaccine immunogen compared to full-length S-protein vaccines with respect to humoral and cellular immune responses against both the prototype pandemic SARS-CoV-2 isolate and emerging variants of concern.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PHARMACEUTICS13101621
05 Oct 2021-Pharmaceutics
Abstract: In the last decade, the interest in ferritin-based vaccines has been increasing due to their safety and immunogenicity. Candidates against a wide range of pathogens are now on Phase I clinical trials namely for influenza, Epstein-Barr, and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Manufacturing challenges related to particle heterogeneity, improper folding of fused antigens, and antigen interference with intersubunit interactions still need to be overcome. In addition, protocols need to be standardized so that the production bioprocess becomes reproducible, allowing ferritin-based therapeutics to become readily available. In this review, the building blocks that enable the formulation of ferritin-based vaccines at an experimental stage, including design, production, and purification are presented. Novel bioengineering strategies of functionalizing ferritin nanoparticles based on modular assembly, allowing the challenges associated with genetic fusion to be circumvented, are discussed. Distinct up/down-stream approaches to produce ferritin-based vaccines and their impact on production yield and vaccine efficacy are compared. Finally, ferritin nanoparticles currently used in vaccine development and clinical trials are summarized.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (51%)

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63 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.2648
Zunyou Wu1, Jennifer M. McGoogan1Institutions (1)
07 Apr 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Background: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients are frequently elderly subjects with co-morbidities receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for d

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Topics: Outbreak (56%)

10,464 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2008-3
Fan Wu1, Su Zhao2, Bin Yu3, Yan-Mei Chen1  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1–3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of the complete viral genome of a new coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae reveal that the virus is closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses found in bats in China.

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%), Betacoronavirus (59%), Zika virus disease (54%) ... read more

6,266 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41564-020-0695-Z
Abstract: The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks.

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Topics: Coronavirus (64%), Nidovirales (50%)

3,790 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2035389
Abstract: Background Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. Methods This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 μg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P Conclusions The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (62%), Breakthrough infection (53%), Placebo (50%)

2,721 Citations