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Journal ArticleDOI

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

06 Feb 2011-Diabetes Care (American Diabetes Association)-

TL;DR: The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dys-function, and failure of differentorgans, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.
About: This article is published in Diabetes Care.The article was published on 2011-02-06 and is currently open access. It has received 12946 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Prediabetes & Impaired fasting glucose.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These predictions, based on a larger number of studies than previous estimates, indicate a growing burden of diabetes, particularly in developing countries.
Abstract: Aim We estimated the number of people worldwide with diabetes for the years 2010 and 2030. Methods Studies from 91 countries were used to calculate age- and sex-specific diabetes prevalences, which were applied to national population estimates, to determine national diabetes prevalences for all 216 countries for 2010 and 2030. Studies were identified using Medline, and contact with all national and regional International Diabetes Federation offices. Studies were included if diabetes prevalence was assessed using a population-based methodology, and was based on World Health Organization or American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria for at least three separate age-groups within the 20–79 year range. Self-report or registry data were used if blood glucose assessment was not available. Results The world prevalence of diabetes among adults (aged 20–79 years) will be 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults, in 2010, and will increase to 7.7%, and 439 million adults by 2030. Between 2010 and 2030, there will be a 69% increase in numbers of adults with diabetes in developing countries and a 20% increase in developed countries. Conclusion These predictions, based on a larger number of studies than previous estimates, indicate a growing burden of diabetes, particularly in developing countries.

6,329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Mar 2017-Circulation
TL;DR: WRITING GROUP MEMBERS Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, SCM, FAHA Michael J. Reeves, PhD Matthew Ritchey, PT, DPT, OCS, MPH Carlos J. Jiménez, ScD, SM Lori Chaffin Jordan,MD, PhD Suzanne E. Judd, PhD
Abstract: WRITING GROUP MEMBERS Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, SCM, FAHA Michael J. Blaha, MD, MPH Stephanie E. Chiuve, ScD Mary Cushman, MD, MSc, FAHA Sandeep R. Das, MD, MPH, FAHA Rajat Deo, MD, MTR Sarah D. de Ferranti, MD, MPH James Floyd, MD, MS Myriam Fornage, PhD, FAHA Cathleen Gillespie, MS Carmen R. Isasi, MD, PhD, FAHA Monik C. Jiménez, ScD, SM Lori Chaffin Jordan, MD, PhD Suzanne E. Judd, PhD Daniel Lackland, DrPH, FAHA Judith H. Lichtman, PhD, MPH, FAHA Lynda Lisabeth, PhD, MPH, FAHA Simin Liu, MD, ScD, FAHA Chris T. Longenecker, MD Rachel H. Mackey, PhD, MPH, FAHA Kunihiro Matsushita, MD, PhD, FAHA Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, FAHA Michael E. Mussolino, PhD, FAHA Khurram Nasir, MD, MPH, FAHA Robert W. Neumar, MD, PhD, FAHA Latha Palaniappan, MD, MS, FAHA Dilip K. Pandey, MBBS, MS, PhD, FAHA Ravi R. Thiagarajan, MD, MPH Mathew J. Reeves, PhD Matthew Ritchey, PT, DPT, OCS, MPH Carlos J. Rodriguez, MD, MPH, FAHA Gregory A. Roth, MD, MPH Wayne D. Rosamond, PhD, FAHA Comilla Sasson, MD, PhD, FAHA Amytis Towfighi, MD Connie W. Tsao, MD, MPH Melanie B. Turner, MPH Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD, FAHA Jenifer H. Voeks, PhD Joshua Z. Willey, MD, MS John T. Wilkins, MD Jason HY. Wu, MSc, PhD, FAHA Heather M. Alger, PhD Sally S. Wong, PhD, RD, CDN, FAHA Paul Muntner, PhD, MHSc On behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2017 Update

6,097 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jan 2016-Circulation
TL;DR: Author(s): Writing Group Members; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Benjamin, Emelia J; Go, Alan S; Arnett, Donna K; Blaha, Michael J; Cushman, Mary; Das, Sandeep R; de Ferranti, Sarah; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Fullerton, Heather J; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Isasi, Carmen R; Jimenez, Monik C; Judd, Suzanne
Abstract: Author(s): Writing Group Members; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Benjamin, Emelia J; Go, Alan S; Arnett, Donna K; Blaha, Michael J; Cushman, Mary; Das, Sandeep R; de Ferranti, Sarah; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Fullerton, Heather J; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Isasi, Carmen R; Jimenez, Monik C; Judd, Suzanne E; Kissela, Brett M; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Magid, David J; McGuire, Darren K; Mohler, Emile R; Moy, Claudia S; Muntner, Paul; Mussolino, Michael E; Nasir, Khurram; Neumar, Robert W; Nichol, Graham; Palaniappan, Latha; Pandey, Dilip K; Reeves, Mathew J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Rosamond, Wayne; Sorlie, Paul D; Stein, Joel; Towfighi, Amytis; Turan, Tanya N; Virani, Salim S; Woo, Daniel; Yeh, Robert W; Turner, Melanie B; American Heart Association Statistics Committee; Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

5,552 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2013-Circulation
TL;DR: Author(s): Go, Alan S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Roger, Veronique L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Berry, Jarett D; Borden, William B; Bravata, Dawn M; Dai, Shifan; Ford, Earl S; Fox, Caroline S; Franco, Sheila; Fullerton, Heather J; Gillespie, Cathleen; Hailpern, Susan M; Heit, John A; Howard, Virginia J; Huff
Abstract: Author(s): Go, Alan S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Roger, Veronique L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Berry, Jarett D; Borden, William B; Bravata, Dawn M; Dai, Shifan; Ford, Earl S; Fox, Caroline S; Franco, Sheila; Fullerton, Heather J; Gillespie, Cathleen; Hailpern, Susan M; Heit, John A; Howard, Virginia J; Huffman, Mark D; Kissela, Brett M; Kittner, Steven J; Lackland, Daniel T; Lichtman, Judith H; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Magid, David; Marcus, Gregory M; Marelli, Ariane; Matchar, David B; McGuire, Darren K; Mohler, Emile R; Moy, Claudia S; Mussolino, Michael E; Nichol, Graham; Paynter, Nina P; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sorlie, Paul D; Stein, Joel; Turan, Tanya N; Virani, Salim S; Wong, Nathan D; Woo, Daniel; Turner, Melanie B; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee

5,276 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2011-Circulation
TL;DR: Dariush Mozaffarian, Michael E. Mussolino, Graham Nichol, Nina P. Paynter, Wayne D. Sorlie, Randall S. Stafford, Tanya N. Turan, Melanie B. Turner, Nathan D. Turner.
Abstract: Rosamond, Paul D. Sorlie, Randall S. Stafford, Tanya N. Turan, Melanie B. Turner, Nathan D. Dariush Mozaffarian, Michael E. Mussolino, Graham Nichol, Nina P. Paynter, Wayne D. Ariane Marelli, David B. Matchar, Mary M. McDermott, James B. Meigs, Claudia S. Moy, Lackland, Judith H. Lichtman, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Diane M. Makuc, Gregory M. Marcus, John A. Heit, P. Michael Ho, Virginia J. Howard, Brett M. Kissela, Steven J. Kittner, Daniel T. Caroline S. Fox, Heather J. Fullerton, Cathleen Gillespie, Kurt J. Greenlund, Susan M. Hailpern, Todd M. Brown, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Shifan Dai, Giovanni de Simone, Earl S. Ford, Véronique L. Roger, Alan S. Go, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Robert J. Adams, Jarett D. Berry, Association 2011 Update : A Report From the American Heart −− Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

5,109 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors — elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle — are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. Methods We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. Results The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Conclusions Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.

16,279 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2003-Diabetes Care
TL;DR: The International Expert Committee was convened to reexamine the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes, which were based on the 1979 publication of the National Diabetes Data Group and subsequent WHO study group and adopted several changes to the diagnostic criteria for diabetes and for lesser degrees of impaired glucose regulation (IFG/IGT).
Abstract: In 1997, an International Expert Committee was convened to reexamine the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes, which were based on the 1979 publication of the National Diabetes Data Group (1) and subsequent WHO study group (2). As a result of its deliberations, the Committee recommended several changes to the diagnostic criteria for diabetes and for lesser degrees of impaired glucose regulation (IFG/IGT) (3). The following were the major changes or issues addressed. 1) The use of a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test for the diagnosis of diabetes was recommended, and the cut point separating diabetes from nondiabetes was lowered from FPG 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) to 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l). (All glycemic values represent venous plasma.) This change was based on data that showed an increase in prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy beginning at approximately a FPG of 126 mg/dl, as well as on the desire to reduce the discrepancy that existed in the number of cases detected by the FPG cut point of 140 mg/dl and the 2-h value in the OGTT (2-h plasma glucose [2-h PG]) of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). 2) Normal FPG was defined as 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l). 3) The use of HbA1c (A1C) as a diagnostic test for diabetes was not recommended. The primary reason for this decision was a lack of standardized methodology resulting in varying nondiabetic reference ranges among laboratories. 4) Although the OGTT (which consists of an FPG and 2-h PG value) was recognized as a valid way to diagnose diabetes, the use of the test for diagnostic purposes in clinical practice was discouraged for several reasons (e.g., inconvenience, less reproducibility, greater cost). The diagnostic category of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was retained to describe people whose FPG was 126 mg/dl but whose 2-h PG after a 75-g oral glucose challenge was 140–199 mg/dl. 5) The range of FPG levels between “normal” and that diagnostic for diabetes was named “impaired fasting glucose” (IFG). IFG identified people whose FPG ranged from 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) to 125 mg/dl (6.9 mmol/l). This construct was established so that there would be a fasting category analogous to IGT. The WHO consultation (4) also adopted most of the above conclusions. The two significant differences were that, whenever feasible, individuals with IFG should receive an OGTT to exclude the presence of diabetes, and the adoption of different criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Since the 1997 Expert Committee report, many new data related to the diagnosis of diabetes have been published. First, many analyses of both old and new epidemiological data have examined the equivalence of the FPG and the 2-h PG to predict diabetes, and questions have been raised about the preference of the FPG test over the 2-h PG to diagnose diabetes (5– 7). Second, the IGT category has now been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (8–10) and CVD events (10,11), whereas IFG is much less strongly associated with CVD events and CVD mortality (10,11). Third, the National Glycosylated Hemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) has now ensured that most laboratories in the U.S. perform the assays using standardized controls and report glycated hemoglobin results in a manner traceable to the assay used in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (12). These development s have improved as say performance and now allow caregivers and patients to compare reported results obtained among laboratories. Additional studies have suggested that the A1C may assist in diagnosing diabetes (13–17). Finally, data from major clinical trials that tested whether the progression from IGT to diabetes could be delayed or prevented by a treatment intervention have produced concordant results: intensive lifestyle modification (nutritional and exercise interventions) (18,19), metformin (19,20), and acarbose (20,21) were effective to variable degrees. In addition, a thiazolidinedione drug (troglitazone) reduced the incidence of diabetes in high-risk women with prior gestational diabetes (22). An inherent difficulty in the diagnosis of diabetes is the present lack of an identified unique qualitative biological marker that separates all people with diabetes from all nondiabetic individuals. The closest such characteristic for practical purposes is diabetic retinopathy, but this suffers from the obvious defect that in most diabetic patients, retinopathy usually becomes evident years after the recognized onset of diabetes. The lack of a suitable, unique marker of diabetes has led to reliance on the metabolic abnormality historically associated with the disease, i.e., hyperglycemia (as measured by the FPG or 2-h PG) as the most useful diagnostic test. The selection of diagnostic cut points for these tests rests on two ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

3,572 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Boyd E. Metzger1, Lynn P. Lowe1, Alan R. Dyer1, Elisabeth R. Trimble2  +10 moreInstitutions (7)
TL;DR: The results indicate strong, continuous associations of maternal glucose levels below those diagnostic of diabetes with increased birth weight and increased cord-blood serum C-peptide levels.
Abstract: Background It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes Methods A total of 25,505 pregnant women at 15 centers in nine countries underwent 75-g oral glucose-tolerance testing at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation Data remained blinded if the fasting plasma glucose level was 105 mg per deciliter (58 mmol per liter) or less and the 2-hour plasma glucose level was 200 mg per deciliter (111 mmol per liter) or less Primary outcomes were birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, primary cesarean delivery, clinically diagnosed neonatal hypoglycemia, and cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile Secondary outcomes were delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, need for intensive neonatal care, hyperbilirubinemia, and preeclampsia Results For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glucose level of 1 SD (69 mg per deciliter [04 mmol per liter]), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (309 mg per deciliter [17 mmol per liter]), and an increase in the 2-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (235 mg per deciliter [13 mmol per liter]) For birth weight above the 90th percentile, the odds ratios were 138 (95% confidence interval [CI], 132 to 144), 146 (139 to 153), and 138 (132 to 144), respectively; for cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile, 155 (95% CI, 147 to 164), 146 (138 to 154), and 137 (130 to 144); for primary cesarean delivery, 111 (95% CI, 106 to 115), 110 (106 to 115), and 108 (103 to 112); and for neonatal hypoglycemia, 108 (95% CI, 098 to 119), 113 (103 to 126), and 110 (100 to 112) There were no obvious thresholds at which risks increased Significant associations were also observed for secondary outcomes, although these tended to be weaker Conclusions Our results indicate strong, continuous associations of maternal glucose levels below those diagnostic of diabetes with increased birth weight and increased cord-blood serum C-peptide levels

3,439 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2010-Diabetes Care
TL;DR: The Brazilian study provided evidence that adverse perinatal outcomes are associated with levels of maternal glycemia below those diagnostic of GDM by American Diabetes Association or World Health Organization criteria, however, the results were potentially confounded by the treatment of G DM.
Abstract: In the accompanying comment letter (1), Weinert summarizes published data from the Brazilian Gestational Diabetes Study (2) and comments on applying International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) Consensus Panel recommendations (3) for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to that cohort The Brazilian study provided evidence that adverse perinatal outcomes are associated with levels of maternal glycemia below those diagnostic of GDM by American Diabetes Association or World Health Organization criteria However, the results were potentially confounded by the treatment of GDM It did find that women with GDM were at increased risk for some …

3,253 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Treatment of gestational diabetes reduces serious perinatal morbidity and may also improve the woman's health-related quality of life.
Abstract: Background We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced the risk of perinatal complications. Methods We randomly assig...

2,507 citations