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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.22532

Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

02 Mar 2021-JAMA (American Medical Association)-Vol. 325, Iss: 9, pp 865-877
Abstract: Importance The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the United States is between 7% and 16%, most common in women and young people, with annual direct costs estimated at more than $1 billion dollars in the United States. Traditionally, the diagnosis of IBS has been based on the positive identification of symptoms that correlate with several different syndromes associated with disorders such as IBS diarrhea, IBS constipation, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, chronic functional abdominal pain, or bloating. Several peripheral and central mechanisms initiate gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunctions leading to IBS symptoms. Those dysfunctions may require evaluation in patients whose symptoms do not respond to first-line treatments. Observations Validation studies of consensus symptom-based criteria have identified deficiencies that favor a simpler identification of the predominant symptoms of abdominal pain, bowel dysfunction, and bloating and exclusion of alarm symptoms such as unintentional weight loss, rectal bleeding, or recent change in bowel function. Symptom-based diagnosis of IBS is enhanced with additional history for symptoms of somatoform and psychological disorders and alarm symptoms, physical examination including digital rectal examination, and screening tests to exclude organic disease (by measuring hemoglobin and C-reactive protein concentrations). The initial treatment plan should include patient education, reassurance, and first-line treatments such as fiber and osmotic laxatives for constipation, opioids for diarrhea, antispasmodics for pain and for management of associated psychological disorders. For patients who do not respond to those IBS treatments, testing for specific functional disorders may be required in a minority of patients with IBS. These disorders include rectal evacuation disorder, abnormal colonic transit, and bile acid diarrhea. Their identification is followed by individualized treatment, such as pelvic floor retraining for rectal evacuation disorders, sequestrants for bile acid diarrhea, and secretory agents for constipation, although there is only limited evidence that this individualized management approach is effective. Conclusions and Relevance Advances in the identification of specific dysfunctions as causes of individual symptoms in the “IBS spectrum” leads to the potential to enhance the diagnosis and management of symptoms for the majority of patients for whom first-line therapies of IBS and management of comorbid psychological disorders are insufficient.

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11 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3748/WJG.V27.I18.2219
Abstract: Background Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) seems to be a promising treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. In Western countries (United States and Europe), there is a female predominance in IBS. A sex difference in the response to FMT has been reported recently in IBS patients. Aim To investigate whether there was a sex difference in the response to FMT in the IBS patients who were included in our previous randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of FMT. Methods The study included 164 IBS patients who participated in our previous randomized controlled trial. These patients had moderate-to-severe IBS symptoms belonging to the IBS-D (diarrhoea-predominant), IBS-C (constipation-predominant) and IBS-M (mixed) subtypes, and had not responded to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-modified diet. They belonged in three groups: placebo (own faeces), and active treated group (30-g or 60-g superdonor faeces). The patients completed the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS), Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and the IBS quality of life scale (IBS-QoL) questionnaires at the baseline and 2 wk, 1 mo and 3 mo after FMT. They also provided faecal samples at the baseline and 1 mo after FMT. The faecal bacteria profile and dysbiosis were determined using the 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification covering V3-V9; probe labelling by single nucleotide extension and signal detection. The levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined by gas chromatography and flame ionization. Results There was no sex difference in the response to FMT either in the placebo group or active treated group. There was no difference between females and males in either the placebo group or actively treated groups in the total score on the IBS-SSS, FAS or IBS-QoL, in dysbiosis, or in the faecal bacteria or SCFA level. However, the response rate was significantly higher in females with diarrhoea-predominant (IBS-D) than that of males at 1 mo, and 3 mo after FMT. Moreover, IBS-SSS total score was significantly lower in female patients with IBS-D than that of male patients both 1 mo and 3 mo after FMT. Conclusion There was no sex difference in the response to FMT among IBS patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms who had previously not responded to NICE-modified diet. However, female patients with IBS-D respond better and have higher reduction of symptoms than males after FMT.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.GASTRO.2021.07.034
Lin Chang1Institutions (1)
28 Jul 2021-Gastroenterology
Topics: MEDLINE (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.21518/2079-701X-2021-5-22-28
07 May 2021-
Abstract: A review of modern data from the study of functional disorders of the digestive tract is performed. In the United States, 4 million people with functional bowel disorders seek medical care annually, and the annual cost of managing these patients is $ 358 million. Due to the urgency of the problem, new developments appear, among which it is necessary to highlight the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) guidelines for the management of patients with IBS. To examine patients with suspected IBS, the authors of the ACG guideline proposed a positive diagnostic strategy, which is based on a careful study of the anamnesis, focusing on the key symptoms of the relationship between abdominal pain and bowel function during a long course of the disease (more than 6 months) and the absence of alarming symptoms with minimal use of instrumental diagnostic tests. For the diagnosis of IBS, the authors recommended serological testing for celiac disease, determination of fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein to exclude inflammatory bowel diseases, but they did not consider it necessary to routinely analyze stool for intestinal pathogens. From our point of view, the absence of routine stool analysis for intestinal pathogens is completely inapplicable for Russia, since in our country the frequency of detection of diphyllobothriasis, giardiasis and opisthorchiasis is very high. The ACG consensus drew attention to the need to expand the evidence base for the use of some standard drugs for the treatment of IBS, proposed a number of new drugs (lebiprostone, linaclotide), recommended the use of rifaximin (for the treatment of IBS with a predominance of diarrhea) and tricyclic antidepressants (for the treatment of IBS). Analysis of modern international recommendations suggests that the clinical guidelines of the Russian Gastroenterological Association and the Association of Coloproctologists of Russia for the diagnosis and treatment of IBS are currently the main document governing the management of these patients in our country.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNHUM.2021.736512
Tingting Zhao1, Li-Xia Pei1, Houxu Ning2, Jing Guo1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), as a functional gastrointestinal disorder, is characterized by abdominal pain and distension. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture treatment improves symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) by altering networks in certain brain regions. However, few studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare altered resting-state inter-network functional connectivity in IBS-D patients before and after acupuncture treatment. Objective: To analyze altered resting-state inter-network functional connectivity in IBS-D patients before and after acupuncture treatment. Methods: A total of 74 patients with IBS-D and 31 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for this study. fMRI examination was performed in patients with IBS-D before and after acupuncture treatment, but only at baseline in HCs. Data on the left frontoparietal network (LFPN), default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), ventral attention network (VAN), auditory network (AN), visual network (VN), sensorimotor network (SMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and right frontoparietal network (RFPN) were subjected to independent component analysis (ICA). The functional connectivity values of inter-network were explored. Results: Acupuncture decreased irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). It also ameliorated symptoms related to IBS-D. Notably, functional connectivity between AN and VAN, SMN and DMN, RFPN and VAN in IBS-D patients after acupuncture treatment was different from that in HCs. Furthermore, there were differences in functional connectivity between DMN and DAN, DAN and LFPN, DMN and VAN before and after acupuncture treatment. The inter-network changes in DMN-VAN were positively correlated with changes in HAMA, life influence degree, and IBS-SSS in IBS-D. Conclusion: Altered inter-network functional connectivity is involved in several important hubs in large-scale networks. These networks are altered by acupuncture stimulation in patients with IBS-D.

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Topics: Resting state fMRI (58%), Task-positive network (56%), Acupuncture (55%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2021.6758
Michael Camilleri1Institutions (1)
13 Jul 2021-JAMA
Topics: Irritable bowel syndrome (58%)

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108 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.GASTRO.2005.11.061
01 Apr 2006-Gastroenterology
Abstract: Employing a consensus approach, our working team critically considered the available evidence and multinational expert criticism, revised the Rome II diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders, and updated diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Diagnosis of a functional bowel disorder (FBD) requires characteristic symptoms during the last 3 months and onset >6 months ago. Alarm symptoms suggest the possibility of structural disease, but do not necessarily negate a diagnosis of an FBD. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are best identified by symptom-based approaches. Subtyping of IBS is controversial, and we suggest it be based on stool form, which can be aided by use of the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Diagnostic testing should be guided by the patient’s age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Treatment of FBDs is based on an individualized evaluation, explanation, and reassurance. Alterations in diet, drug treatment aimed at predominant symptoms, and psychotherapy may be beneficial.

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Topics: Manning criteria (61%), Plecanatide (58%), Bristol stool scale (57%) ... show more

4,042 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/GUT.45.2008.II43
W G Thompson1, G F Longstreth2, Douglas A. Drossman2, K W Heaton2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Sep 1999-Gut
Abstract: The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.

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Topics: Manning criteria (63%), Abdominal pain (60%), Plecanatide (56%) ... show more

2,489 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF01303162
Douglas A. Drossman1, Zhiming Li1, E Andruzzi1, R D Temple1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Our objective was to obtain national data of the estimated prevalence, sociodemographic relationships, and health impact of persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders. We surveyed a stratified probability random sample of U.S householders selected from a data base of a national market firm (National Family Opinion, Inc.). Questions were asked about bowel symptoms, sociodemographic associations, work absenteeism, and physician visits. The sampling frame was constructed to be demographically similar to the U.S. householder population based on geographic region, age of householder, population density, household income and household size. Of 8250 mailings, 5430 were returned suitable for analysis (66% response). The survey assessed the prevalence of 20 functional gastrointestinal syndromes based on fulfillment of multinational diagnostic (Rome) criteria. Additional variables studied included: demographic status, work absenteeism, health care use, employment status, family income, geographic area of residence, population density, and number of persons in household. For this sample, 69% reported having at least one of 20 functional gastrointestinal syndromes in the previous three months. The symptoms were attributed to four major anatomic regions: esophageal (42%), gastroduodenal (26%), bowel (44%), and anorectal (26%), with considerable overlap. Females reported greater frequencies of globus, functional dysphagia, irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain, functional biliary pain and dyschezia; males reported greater frequencies of aerophagia and functional bloating. Symptom reporting, except for incontinence, declines with age, and low income is associated with greater symptom reporting. The rate of work/school absenteeism and physician visits is increased for those having a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Furthermore, the greatest rates are associated with those having gross fecal incontinence and certain more painful functional gastrointestinal disorders such as chronic abdominal pain, biliary pain, functional dyspepsia and IBS. Preliminary information on the prevalence, socio-demographic features and health impact is provided for persons who fulfill diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders.

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2,000 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0016-5085(87)90837-7
01 Jan 1987-Gastroenterology
Abstract: Transit times of radiopaque markers through the human gut were measured by published techniques and compared with a simplified method. Three sets of distinctive markers were ingested by 24 healthy persons on 3 successive days. In the first part of the study, daily abdominal x-rays were taken and individual stools were collected for radiography. Mouth-to-anus transits were assessed from the fecal output of markers and mean colonic and segmental colonic transits were calculated from the daily radiographs. These established methods were then compared with estimates of total colonic and segmental transits based on a single abdominal film, taken on the fourth day. The single-film technique correlated well with values obtained from the previous, but more inconvenient, methods. Using the simpler approach, colonic transit was assessed in 49 additional healthy subjects, for a total group of 73. Total colonic transit was 35.0 +/- 2.1 h (mean +/- SE); segmental transits was 11.3 +/- 1.1 h for the right colon, 11.4 +/- 1.4 h for the left colon, and 12.4 +/- 1.1 h for the rectosigmoid. Men had significantly shorter transits for the whole colon than did women (p less than 0.05), and this difference was apparent to some extent in the right (p = 0.06) and left colon (p = 0.07) but not in the rectosigmoid. Age did not influence transit significantly nor did a small dose of supplemental fiber. The technique is simple, convenient for clinical usage, and reduces the exposure to radiation to acceptable levels. There should be a role for this approach in the evaluation of colonic transit in selected patients.

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Topics: Colonic inertia (56%)

844 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1004409
Mark Pimentel1, Anthony Lembo2, William D. Chey, Salam Zakko  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Background Evidence suggests that gut flora may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated rifaximin, a minimally absorbed antibiotic, as treatment for IBS. Methods In two identically designed, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (TARGET 1 and TARGET 2), patients who had IBS without constipation were randomly assigned to either rifaximin at a dose of 550 mg or placebo, three times daily for 2 weeks, and were followed for an additional 10 weeks. The primary end point, the proportion of patients who had adequate relief of global IBS symptoms, and the key secondary end point, the proportion of patients who had adequate relief of IBS-related bloating, were assessed weekly. Adequate relief was defined as self-reported relief of symptoms for at least 2 of the first 4 weeks after treatment. Other secondary end points included the percentage of patients who had a response to treatment as assessed by daily self-ratings of global IBS symptoms and i...

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Topics: Rifaximin (58%), Irritable bowel syndrome (55%), Bloating (52%) ... show more

786 Citations


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