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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003528

Diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer screening and screening–triage strategies among women living with HIV-1 in Burkina Faso and South Africa: A cohort study

04 Mar 2021-PLOS Medicine (Public Library of Science)-Vol. 18, Iss: 3
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening strategies using visual inspection or cytology may have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy for detection of precancer in women living with HIV (WLHIV). The optimal screen and screen-triage strategy, age to initiate, and frequency of screening for WLHIV remain unclear. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of different cervical cancer strategies in WLHIV in Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WLHIV aged 25-50 years attending HIV treatment centres in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA) from 5 December 2011 to 30 October 2012 were enrolled in a prospective evaluation study of visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA) or visual inspection using Lugol's iodine (VILI), high-risk human papillomavirus DNA test (Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2] or careHPV), and cytology for histology-verified high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+/CIN3+) at baseline and endline, a median 16 months later. Among 1,238 women (BF: 615; SA: 623), median age was 36 and 34 years (p < 0.001), 28.6% and 49.6% ever had prior cervical cancer screening (p < 0.001), and 69.9% and 64.2% were taking ART at enrolment (p = 0.045) in BF and SA, respectively. CIN2+ prevalence was 5.8% and 22.4% in BF and SA (p < 0.001), respectively. VIA had low sensitivity for CIN2+ (44.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 36.9%-52.7%) and CIN3+ (56.1%, 95% CI 43.3%-68.3%) in both countries, with specificity for ≤CIN1 of 78.7% (95% CI 76.0%-81.3%). HC2 had sensitivity of 88.8% (95% CI 82.9%-93.2%) for CIN2+ and 86.4% (95% CI 75.7%-93.6%) for CIN3+. Specificity for ≤CIN1 was 55.4% (95% CI 52.2%-58.6%), and screen positivity was 51.3%. Specificity was higher with a restricted genotype (HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58) approach (73.5%, 95% CI 70.6%-76.2%), with lower screen positivity (33.7%), although there was lower sensitivity for CIN3+ (77.3%, 95% CI 65.3%-86.7%). In BF, HC2 was more sensitive for CIN2+/CIN3+ compared to VIA/VILI (relative sensitivity for CIN2+ = 1.72, 95% CI 1.28-2.32; CIN3+: 1.18, 95% CI 0.94-1.49). Triage of HC2-positive women with VIA/VILI reduced the number of colposcopy referrals, but with loss in sensitivity for CIN2+ (58.1%) but not for CIN3+ (84.6%). In SA, cytology high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or greater (HSIL+) had best combination of sensitivity (CIN2+: 70.1%, 95% CI 61.3%-77.9%; CIN3+: 80.8%, 95% CI 67.5%-90.4%) and specificity (81.6%, 95% CI 77.6%-85.1%). HC2 had similar sensitivity for CIN3+ (83.0%, 95% CI 70.2%-91.9%) but lower specificity compared to HSIL+ (42.7%, 95% CI 38.4%-47.1%; relative specificity = 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63), resulting in almost twice as many referrals. Compared to HC2, triage of HC2-positive women with HSIL+ resulted in a 40% reduction in colposcopy referrals but was associated with some loss in sensitivity. CIN2+ incidence over a median 16 months was highest among VIA baseline screen-negative women (2.2%, 95% CI 1.3%-3.7%) and women who were baseline double-negative with HC2 and VIA (2.1%, 95% CI 1.3%-3.5%) and lowest among HC2 baseline screen-negative women (0.5%, 95% CI 0.1%-1.8%). Limitations of our study are that WLHIV included in the study may not reflect a contemporary cohort of WLHIV initiating ART in the universal ART era and that we did not evaluate HPV tests available in study settings today. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study among WLHIV in Africa, a human papillomavirus (HPV) test targeting 14 high-risk (HR) types had higher sensitivity to detect CIN2+ compared to visual inspection but had low specificity, although a restricted genotype approach targeting 8 HR types decreased the number of unnecessary colposcopy referrals. Cytology HSIL+ had optimal performance for CIN2+/CIN3+ detection in SA. Triage of HPV-positive women with HSIL+ maintained high specificity but with some loss in sensitivity compared to HC2 alone.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CAM4.4152
Rufei Duan1, Xuelian Zhao1, Hongyun Zhang2, Xiaoqian Xu1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
02 Aug 2021-Cancer Medicine
Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical performance of liquid-based cytology (LBC), HPV tests and visual inspections with acetic acid or Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI) as primary screening and triage strategies among Chinese women living with HIV (WLHIV). METHODS WLHIV aged 18 years and older were recruited from HIV/AIDS treatment clinic in Yunnan, China from 2019 to 2020. Women were screened with self- and physician-sampling for HPV tests, LBC, and VIA/VILI. Women positive for any HPV or with cytological abnormalities were recalled for colposcopy examination and biopsy when necessary. Clinical performance of primary and triage strategies for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was evaluated. RESULTS For primary screening, sensitivity of physician-HPV tests was 100%, 89.5%, and 100% for hybrid capture 2 (HC2), cobas, and Sansure HPV, and specificity was 80.4%, 85.1%, and 72.0%, respectively. Self-HPV test achieved considerable performance with physician-HPV. Sensitivity and specificity were 61.1% and 96.3% for LBC (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse [ASCUS+]), 40.0% and 77.3% for VIA/VILI. For triaging HPV-positive women, LBC (ASCUS+), HPV-16/18 genotyping, and VIA/VILI-elevated specificity with sensitivity declined 30%-50% compared with HPV screening alone. Restricted HPV genotyping triage (HPV-16/18/31/33/45/52/58) demonstrated the optimal accuracy (89.5% sensitivity, 81.9% specificity), and was similar to HPV-16/18 with reflex LBC (ASCUS+). Combination antiretroviral therapies (cARTs) <2 years were associated with decreased specificity of HC2 (aOR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.22-3.91) and Sansure HPV (2.48, 1.43-4.29). CONCLUSIONS Self-HPV with restricted genotyping triage is highly recommended for cervical cancer screening for WLHIV in China. Feasible triage to increase HPV specificity among women with short duration of cART is needed.

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Topics: Cervical cancer (54%), Colposcopy (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/D44148-021-00031-2
08 May 2021-
Abstract: Approach creates opportunity for early detection and treatment of women with cervical pre-cancer in resource-poor settings. Approach creates opportunity for early detection and treatment of women with cervical pre-cancer in resource-poor settings.

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Topics: Cervical cancer (56%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FRPH.2021.695254
Mahima Lall1, Lalit Dar2, Neerja Bhatla2, Pankaj Kumar2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
13 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Both human papillomavirus (HPV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are sexually transmitted. High-risk (HR) HPV types are a causal factor in cervical cancer. Persistent HPV infection in this subset of immunocompromised women results in faster disease progression. The study determined prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervicovaginal secretions of HIV seropositive women and correlation with CD4 counts and cytology. Method: One hundred, HIV-positive women 18 years of age and above were enrolled in this cross-sectional study following approval by the ethical committee. HPV genotyping was carried out with PCR amplification followed by reverse hybridization by line probe assay (LPA) using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Extra kit, (Fujirebio,Belgium). Quantitation of HPV-16 and -18 viral loads (VLs) was done by real time PCR. Results of Pap smear cytology were correlated with CD4 counts and HPV-16 and -18 viral loads. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 34.9 years ± 7.2 years (median 33.0 years, range 24-60 years). HPV was detected in 62/93 (66.6%) of the samples. HPV-16 was the commonest genotype detected in 26 (27.9%) of all samples and in 41.9% of HPV positive samples. Pap smear cytology was reported for 93 women included in the study. Women who had a normal cytology were reported as negative for intraepithelial malignancy or lesion (NILM) (n=62) (71.36%), two women had a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n=11), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (n=12). The median CD4 count was 363/cu.mm (range 39-787) in HPV positive women compared to 423/cu.mm (range 141-996) in those negative. Thirteen (13) of these 20 samples (65%), were positive by real-time PCR. The normalized HPV-16 VL ranged between 18 to 240000 copies/cell. and normalized HPV-18 VL ranged between ~24 - 60000 copies per cell. Conclusions:Studies are required to determine the predictive role of HR HPV genotypes, in significant copy numbers especially in HIV seropositive women. It would be clinically relevant if the HPV VLs, cervical cytology, CD4 counts are considered into cervical cancer screening programs for triage and follow up of these women.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/D44148-021-00033-0
08 May 2021-
Abstract: Cette approche permet de detecter et de traiter precocement les femmes atteintes d'un pre-cancer du col de l'uterus dans les regions a faibles ressources.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21696
Abstract: Despite being highly preventable, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer death in women globally. In low-income countries, cervical cancer is often the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at a particularly high risk of cervical cancer because of an impaired immune response to human papillomavirus, the obligate cause of virtually all cervical cancers. Globally, approximately 1 in 20 cervical cancers is attributable to HIV; in sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 1 in 5 cervical cancers is due to HIV. Here, the authors provide a critical appraisal of the evidence to date on the impact of HIV disease on cervical cancer risk, describe key methodologic issues, and frame the key outstanding research questions, especially as they apply to ongoing global efforts for prevention and control of cervical cancer. Expanded efforts to integrate HIV care with cervical cancer prevention and control, and vice versa, could assist the global effort to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem.

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42 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70230-8
Silvia de Sanjosé, Wim Quint, Laia Alemany, D.T. Geraets  +59 moreInstitutions (31)
01 Nov 2010-Lancet Oncology
Abstract: Summary Background Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Methods Paraffin-embedded samples of histologically confirmed cases of invasive cervical cancer were collected from 38 countries in Europe, North America, central South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Inclusion criteria were a pathological confirmation of a primary invasive cervical cancer of epithelial origin in the tissue sample selected for analysis of HPV DNA, and information about the year of diagnosis. HPV detection was done by use of PCR with SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridisation line probe assay. Sequence analysis was done to characterise HPV-positive samples with unknown HPV types. Data analyses included algorithms of multiple infections to estimate type-specific relative contributions. Findings 22 661 paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 14 249 women. 10 575 cases of invasive cervical cancer were included in the study, and 8977 (85%) of these were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV types were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 with a combined worldwide relative contribution of 8196 of 8977 (91%, 95% CI 90–92). HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 6357 of 8977 of cases (71%, 70–72) of invasive cervical cancer. HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 443 of 470 cases (94%, 92–96) of cervical adenocarcinomas. Unknown HPV types that were identified with sequence analysis were 26, 30, 61, 67, 69, 82, and 91 in 103 (1%) of 8977 cases of invasive cervical cancer. Women with invasive cervical cancers related to HPV types 16, 18, or 45 presented at a younger mean age than did those with other HPV types (50·0 years [49·6–50·4], 48·2 years [47·3–49·2], 46·8 years [46·6–48·1], and 55·5 years [54·9–56·1], respectively). Interpretation To our knowledge, this study is the largest assessment of HPV genotypes to date. HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 should be given priority when the cross-protective effects of current vaccines are assessed, and for formulation of recommendations for the use of second-generation polyvalent HPV vaccines. Our results also suggest that type-specific high-risk HPV-DNA-based screening tests and protocols should focus on HPV types 16, 18, and 45. Funding Spanish grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Agencia de Gestio d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca, Marato de TV3 Foundation, and unrestricted grants from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Sanofi Pasteur MSD, and Merck.

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Topics: HPV vaccines (65%), Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (64%), Cervical cancer (60%) ... show more

1,858 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.H5527
28 Oct 2015-BMJ
Abstract: Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research. Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies, the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed. Here we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such, STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies.

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1,476 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62218-7
08 Feb 2014-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background In four randomised trials, human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening for cervical cancer was compared with cytology-based cervical screening, and precursors of cancer were the endpoint in every trial. However, direct estimates are missing of the relative efficacy of HPV-based versus cytology-based screening for prevention of invasive cancer in women who undergo regular screening, of modifiers (eg, age) of this relative efficacy, and of the duration of protection. We did a follow-up study of the four randomised trials to investigate these outcomes. Methods 176 464 women aged 20–64 years were randomly assigned to HPV-based (experimental arm) or cytology-based (control arm) screening in Sweden (Swedescreen), the Netherlands (POBASCAM), England (ARTISTIC), and Italy (NTCC). We followed up these women for a median of 6·5 years (1 214 415 person-years) and identified 107 invasive cervical carcinomas by linkage with screening, pathology, and cancer registries, by masked review of histological specimens, or from reports. Cumulative and study-adjusted rate ratios (experimental vs control) were calculated for incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma. Findings The rate ratio for invasive cervical carcinoma among all women from recruitment to end of follow-up was 0·60 (95% CI 0·40–0·89), with no heterogeneity between studies (p=0·52). Detection of invasive cervical carcinoma was similar between screening methods during the first 2·5 years of follow-up (0·79, 0·46–1·36) but was significantly lower in the experimental arm thereafter (0·45, 0·25–0·81). In women with a negative screening test at entry, the rate ratio was 0·30 (0·15–0·60). The cumulative incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma in women with negative entry tests was 4·6 per 10 5 (1·1–12·1) and 8·7 per 10 5 (3·3–18·6) at 3·5 and 5·5 years, respectively, in the experimental arm, and 15·4 per 10 5 (7·9–27·0) and 36·0 per 10 5 (23·2–53·5), respectively, in the control arm. Rate ratios did not differ by cancer stage, but were lower for adenocarcinoma (0·31, 0·14–0·69) than for squamous-cell carcinoma (0·78, 0·49–1·25). The rate ratio was lowest in women aged 30–34 years (0·36, 0·14–0·94). Interpretation HPV-based screening provides 60–70% greater protection against invasive cervical carcinomas compared with cytology. Data of large-scale randomised trials support initiation of HPV-based screening from age 30 years and extension of screening intervals to at least 5 years. Funding European Union, Belgian Foundation Against Cancer, KCE-Centre d'Expertise, IARC, The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, the Italian Ministry of Health.

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Topics: Cervical screening (69%), Cervical cancer (61%), Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (60%) ... show more

1,041 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30482-6
Abstract: Summary Background The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of prophylactic vaccines to prevent HPV infection and HPV assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus. WHO has launched a Global Initiative to scale up preventive, screening, and treatment interventions to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem during the 21st century. Therefore, our study aimed to assess the existing burden of cervical cancer as a baseline from which to assess the effect of this initiative. Methods For this worldwide analysis, we used data of cancer estimates from 185 countries from the Global Cancer Observatory 2018 database. We used a hierarchy of methods dependent on the availability and quality of the source information from population-based cancer registries to estimate incidence of cervical cancer. For estimation of cervical cancer mortality, we used the WHO mortality database. Countries were grouped in 21 subcontinents and were also categorised as high-resource or lower-resource countries, on the basis of their Human Development Index. We calculated the number of cervical cancer cases and deaths in a given country, directly age-standardised incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, indirectly standardised incidence ratio and mortality ratio, cumulative incidence and mortality rate, and average age at diagnosis. Findings Approximately 570 000 cases of cervical cancer and 311 000 deaths from the disease occurred in 2018. Cervical cancer was the fourth most common cancer in women, ranking after breast cancer (2·1 million cases), colorectal cancer (0·8 million) and lung cancer (0·7 million). The estimated age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer was 13·1 per 100 000 women globally and varied widely among countries, with rates ranging from less than 2 to 75 per 100 000 women. Cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in eastern, western, middle, and southern Africa. The highest incidence was estimated in Eswatini, with approximately 6·5% of women developing cervical cancer before age 75 years. China and India together contributed more than a third of the global cervical burden, with 106 000 cases in China and 97 000 cases in India, and 48 000 deaths in China and 60 000 deaths in India. Globally, the average age at diagnosis of cervical cancer was 53 years, ranging from 44 years (Vanuatu) to 68 years (Singapore). The global average age at death from cervical cancer was 59 years, ranging from 45 years (Vanuatu) to 76 years (Martinique). Cervical cancer ranked in the top three cancers affecting women younger than 45 years in 146 (79%) of 185 countries assessed. Interpretation Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem affecting middle-aged women, particularly in less-resourced countries. The global scale-up of HPV vaccination and HPV-based screening—including self-sampling—has potential to make cervical cancer a rare disease in the decades to come. Our study could help shape and monitor the initiative to eliminate cervical cancer as a major public health problem. Funding Belgian Foundation Against Cancer, DG Research and Innovation of the European Commission, and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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Topics: Cervical cancer (65%), HPV infection (62%), Cancer (59%) ... show more

770 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.0050132
17 Jun 2008-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Emmanuela Gakidou and colleagues find that coverage of cervical cancer screening in developing countries is on average 19% compared to 63% in developed countries.

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Topics: Mass screening (61%), Cervical cancer (55%), Cancer screening (55%) ... show more

508 Citations