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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CCD.29592

Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative flow ratio for assessment of coronary stenosis significance from a single angiographic view: A novel method based on bifurcation fractal law

04 Mar 2021-Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 97, pp 1040-1047
Abstract: OBJECTIVES We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) from a single angiographic view in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. BACKGROUND Computation of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) from a single angiographic view might increase the feasibility of routine use of computational FFR. In addition, current QFR solutions assume a linear tapering of the reference vessel size, which might decrease the diagnostic accuracy in the presence of the physiologically significant bifurcation lesions. METHODS An artificial intelligence algorithm was proposed for automatic delineation of lumen contours of major epicardial coronary arteries including their side branches. A step-down reference diameter function was reconstructed based on the Murray bifurcation fractal law and used for QFR computation. Validation of this Murray law-based QFR (μQFR) was performed on the FAVOR II China study population. The μQFR was computed separately in two angiographic projections, starting with the one with optimal angiographic image quality. Hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis was defined by pressure wire-derived FFR ≤0.80. RESULTS The μQFR was successfully computed in all 330 vessels of 306 patients. There was excellent correlation (r = 0.90, p < .001) and agreement (mean difference = 0.00 ± 0.05, p = .378) between μQFR and FFR. The vessel-level diagnostic accuracy for μQFR to identify hemodynamically significant stenosis was 93.0% (95% CI: 90.3 to 95.8%), with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of 87.5% (95% CI: 80.2 to 92.8%), 96.2% (95% CI: 92.6 to 98.3%), 92.9% (95% CI: 86.5 to 96.9%), 93.1% (95% CI: 88.9 to 96.1%), 23.0 (95% CI: 11.6 to 45.5), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.20), respectively. Use of suboptimal angiographic image view slightly decreased the diagnostic accuracy of μQFR (AUC = 0.97 versus 0.92, difference = 0.05, p < .001). Intra- and inter-observer variability for μQFR computation was 0.00 ± 0.03, and 0.00 ± 0.03, respectively. Average analysis time for μQFR was 67 ± 22 s. CONCLUSIONS Computation of μQFR from a single angiographic view has high feasibility and excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. The short analysis time and good reproducibility of μQFR bear potential of wider adoption of physiological assessment in the catheterization laboratory.

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Topics: Fractional flow reserve (55%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AHJ.2021.05.004
Masafumi Ono1, Masafumi Ono2, Patrick W. Serruys1, Patrick W. Serruys3  +18 moreInstitutions (9)
Abstract: Background Angiography-derived physiological assessment of coronary lesions has emerged as an alternative to wire-based assessment aiming at less-invasiveness and shorter procedural time as well as cost effectiveness in physiology-guided decision making. However, current available image-derived physiology software have limitations including the requirement of multiple projections and are time consuming. Methods/Design The ReVEAL iFR (Radiographic imaging Validation and EvALuation for Angio-iFR) trial is a multicenter, multicontinental, validation study which aims to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the Angio-iFR medical software device (Philips, San Diego, US) in patients undergoing angiography for Chronic Coronary Syndrome (CCS). The Angio-iFR will enable operators to predict both the iFR and FFR value within a few seconds from a single projection of cine angiography by using a lumped parameter fluid dynamics model. Approximately 440 patients with at least one de-novo 40% to 90% stenosis by visual angiographic assessment will be enrolled in the study. The primary endpoint is the sensitivity and specificity of the iFR and FFR for a given lesion compared to the corresponding invasive measures. The enrollment started in August 2019, and was completed in March 2021. Summary The Angio-iFR system has the potential of simplifying physiological evaluation of coronary stenosis compared with available systems, providing estimates of both FFR and iFR. The ReVEAL iFR study will investigate the predictive performance of the novel Angio-iFR software in CCS patients. Ultimately, based on its unique characteristics, the Angio-iFR system may contribute to improve adoption of functional coronary assessment and the workflow in the catheter laboratory.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2021.05.024
Patrick W. Serruys1, Patrick W. Serruys2, Masafumi Ono1, Scot Garg3  +7 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Over the last 4 decades, percutaneous coronary intervention has evolved dramatically and is now an acceptable treatment option for patients with advanced coronary artery disease. However, trialists have struggled to establish the respective roles for percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, especially in patients with multivessel disease and unprotected left-main stem coronary artery disease. Several pivotal trials and meta-analyses comparing these 2 revascularization strategies have enabled the relative merits of each technique to be established with regard to the type of ischemic syndrome, the coronary anatomy, and the patient's overall comorbidity. Precision medicine with individualized prognosis is emerging as an important method of selecting treatment. However, the never-ending advancement of technology, in conjunction with the emergence of novel pharmacological agents, will in the future continue to force us to reconsider the evolving question: "Which treatment strategy is better and for which patient?"

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02248-0
Bo Xu1, Shengxian Tu2, Lei Song1, Zening Jin3  +31 moreInstitutions (17)
04 Nov 2021-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Compared with visual angiographic assessment, pressure wire-based physiological measurement more accurately identifies flow-limiting lesions in patients with coronary artery disease. Nonetheless, angiography remains the most widely used method to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In FAVOR III China, we aimed to establish whether clinical outcomes might be improved by lesion selection for PCI using the quantitative flow ratio (QFR), a novel angiography-based approach to estimate the fractional flow reserve. Methods FAVOR III China is a multicentre, blinded, randomised, sham-controlled trial done at 26 hospitals in China. Patients aged 18 years or older, with stable or unstable angina pectoris or patients who had a myocardial infarction at least 72 h before screening, who had at least one lesion with a diameter stenosis of 50–90% in a coronary artery with a reference vessel of at least 2·5 mm diameter by visual assessment were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to a QFR-guided strategy (PCI performed only if QFR ≤0·80) or an angiography-guided strategy (PCI based on standard visual angiographic assessment). Participants and clinical assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the 1-year rate of major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03656848 ). Findings Between Dec 25, 2018, and Jan 19, 2020, 3847 patients were enrolled. After exclusion of 22 patients who elected not to undergo PCI or who were withdrawn by their physicians, 3825 participants were included in the intention-to-treat population (1913 in the QFR-guided group and 1912 in the angiography-guided group). The mean age was 62·7 years (SD 10·1), 2699 (70·6%) were men and 1126 (29·4%) were women, 1295 (33·9%) had diabetes, and 2428 (63·5%) presented with an acute coronary syndrome. The 1-year primary endpoint occurred in 110 (Kaplan-Meier estimated rate 5·8%) participants in the QFR-guided group and in 167 (8·8%) participants in the angiography-guided group (difference, –3·0% [95% CI –4·7 to –1·4]; hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·51 to 0·83]; p=0·0004), driven by fewer myocardial infarctions and ischaemia-driven revascularisations in the QFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group. Interpretation In FAVOR III China, among patients undergoing PCI, a QFR-guided strategy of lesion selection improved 1-year clinical outcomes compared with standard angiography guidance. Funding Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital.

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Topics: Conventional PCI (57%), Acute coronary syndrome (57%), Coronary artery disease (57%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2021.112196
Xiangming Hu1, Weimian Wang1, Jingguang Ye, Yan Lin2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: BACKGROUND In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) accompanied by the no-/slow-reflow phenomenon, the maintenance duration of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) is controversial. We compare the efficacy and safety of short- and long-term GPI infusion in STEMI patients with the no-/slow-reflow phenomenon. METHODS From June 2016 to December 2019, we continuously included patients with on-set STEMI who underwent pPCI, accompanied by the no-/slow-reflow, during interventional procedures at Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital and Zhuhai Golden Bay Hospital. The hemorrhage events, heart function, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were compared between < 24 h and ≥ 24 h GPI duration groups. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the 1-year MACE-free survival at different GPI utility times. RESULTS In total, 127 patients were divided into two groups based on the duration of tirofiban use (less and more than 24 h). There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of baseline characteristics, plaque condition, and coronary physiological function. The two groups showed similar in-hospital MACE (1 [1.85%] vs. 4 [5.48%], p = 0.394) and 1-year MACE-free survival (log-rank test p = 0.9085). The 1-year MACE remained consistent between the two groups in all subgroups of different risk factors of no-/slow-reflow. There was no significant difference in heart function and in-hospital hemorrhage events (3.7% vs. 1.37%, p = 0.179). CONCLUSION In the real world, prolonging the duration of GPI may not significantly improve the clinical outcome in patients with STEMI with no-/slow-reflow.

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Topics: Percutaneous coronary intervention (56%), Mace (55%), Tirofiban (55%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACASI.2021.07.002
Hui Qin1, Hui Qin2, Chunming Li2, Li Yingguang3  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: This study sought to evaluate a novel approach for automatic coregistration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and coronary angiography. Lumen diameters and side branches from both coro...

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Topics: Angiography (62%), Optical coherence tomography (56%), Lumen (anatomy) (53%) ... read more

References
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24 results found


Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-24574-4_28
05 Oct 2015-
Abstract: There is large consent that successful training of deep networks requires many thousand annotated training samples. In this paper, we present a network and training strategy that relies on the strong use of data augmentation to use the available annotated samples more efficiently. The architecture consists of a contracting path to capture context and a symmetric expanding path that enables precise localization. We show that such a network can be trained end-to-end from very few images and outperforms the prior best method (a sliding-window convolutional network) on the ISBI challenge for segmentation of neuronal structures in electron microscopic stacks. Using the same network trained on transmitted light microscopy images (phase contrast and DIC) we won the ISBI cell tracking challenge 2015 in these categories by a large margin. Moreover, the network is fast. Segmentation of a 512x512 image takes less than a second on a recent GPU. The full implementation (based on Caffe) and the trained networks are available at http://lmb.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/people/ronneber/u-net .

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Topics: Brain segmentation (57%), Deep learning (54%), Segmentation (50%)

28,273 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHZ425
Juhani Knuuti1, William Wijns2, Antti Saraste1, Davide Capodanno3  +21 moreInstitutions (21)
Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a pathological process characterized by atherosclerotic plaque accumulation in the epicardial arteries, whether obstructive or non-obstructive. This process can be modified by lifestyle adjustments, pharmacological therapies, and invasive interventions designed to achieve disease stabilization or regression. The disease can have long, stable periods but can also become unstable at any time, typically due to an acute atherothrombotic event caused by plaque rupture or erosion. However, the disease is chronic, most often progressive, and hence serious, even in clinically apparently silent periods. The dynamic nature of the CAD process results in various clinical presentations, which can be conveniently categorized as either acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or chronic coronary syndromes (CCS). The Guidelines presented here refer to the management of patients with CCS. The natural history of CCS is illustrated in Figure 1.

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Topics: Coronary artery disease (57%), Disease (50%)

1,769 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2005.04.054
Bon-Kwon Koo1, Hyun-Jai Kang1, Tae-Jin Youn1, In-Ho Chae1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the physiologic assessment of jailed side branches using fractional flow reserve (FFR) and to compare the measured FFR with the stenosis severity assessed by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Background It is not well-known which side branches should be treated after stent implantation at main branches and how to assess the functional significance of these lesions. Methods Ninety-seven jailed side branch lesions (vessel size >2.0 mm, percent stenosis >50% by visual estimation) after stent implantation at main branches were consecutively enrolled. The FFR was measured using a pressure wire at 5 mm distal and proximal to the ostial lesion of the jailed side branch. Results The FFR measurement was successful in 94 lesions. Mean FFRs were 0.94 ± 0.04 and 0.85 ± 0.11 at the main branches and jailed side branches, respectively. There was a negative correlation between the percent stenosis and FFR (r = −0.41, p Conclusions The FFR measurement in jailed side branch lesions is both safe and feasible. Quantitative coronary angiography is unreliable in the assessment of the functional severity of jailed side branch lesions, and measurement of FFR suggests that most of these lesions do not have functional significance.

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Topics: Fractional flow reserve (54%)

289 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCIN.2016.07.013
Shengxian Tu1, Jelmer Westra2, Junqing Yang3, Clemens von Birgelen4  +11 moreInstitutions (8)
Abstract: Objectives The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to identify the optimal approach for simple and fast fractional flow reserve (FFR) computation from radiographic coronary angiography, called quantitative flow ratio (QFR). Background A novel, rapid computation of QFR pullbacks from 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography was developed recently. Methods QFR was derived from 3 flow models with: 1) fixed empiric hyperemic flow velocity (fixed-flow QFR [fQFR]); 2) modeled hyperemic flow velocity derived from angiography without drug-induced hyperemia (contrast-flow QFR [cQFR]); and 3) measured hyperemic flow velocity derived from angiography during adenosine-induced hyperemia (adenosine-flow QFR [aQFR]). Pressure wire-derived FFR, measured during maximal hyperemia, served as the reference. Separate independent core laboratories analyzed angiographic images and pressure tracings from 8 centers in 7 countries. Results The QFR and FFR from 84 vessels in 73 patients with intermediate coronary lesions were compared. Mean angiographic percent diameter stenosis (DS%) was 46.1 ± 8.9%; 27 vessels (32%) had FFR ≤ 0.80. Good agreement with FFR was observed for fQFR, cQFR, and aQFR, with mean differences of 0.003 ± 0.068 (p = 0.66), 0.001 ± 0.059 (p = 0.90), and −0.001 ± 0.065 (p = 0.90), respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy for identifying an FFR of ≤0.80 was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71% to 89%), 86% (95% CI: 78% to 93%), and 87% (95% CI: 80% to 94%). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was higher for cQFR than fQFR (difference: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.08; p < 0.01), but did not differ significantly between cQFR and aQFR (difference: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.06; p = 0.65). Compared with DS%, both cQFR and aQFR increased the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve by 0.20 (p < 0.01) and 0.19 (p < 0.01). The positive likelihood ratio was 4.8, 8.4, and 8.9 for fQFR, cQFR, and aQFR, with negative likelihood ratio of 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2, respectively. Conclusions The QFR computation improved the diagnostic accuracy of 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography-based identification of stenosis significance. The favorable results of cQFR that does not require pharmacologic hyperemia induction bears the potential of a wider adoption of FFR-based lesion assessment through a reduction in procedure time, risk, and costs.

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Topics: Fractional flow reserve (56%)

218 Citations