scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Diagnostic Methods for Non-Falciparum Malaria

TL;DR: In this article, a review of diagnostic methods for malaria non-falciparum differential detection and the possibilities of their application in different circumstances is presented, including the classical procedures and new perspectives.
Abstract: Malaria is a serious public health problem that affects mostly the poorest countries in the world, killing more than 400,000 people per year, mainly children under 5 years old. Among the control and prevention strategies, the differential diagnosis of the Plasmodium-infecting species is an important factor for selecting a treatment and, consequently, for preventing the spread of the disease. One of the main difficulties for the detection of a specific Plasmodium sp is that most of the existing methods for malaria diagnosis focus on detecting P. falciparum. Thus, in many cases, the diagnostic methods neglect the other non-falciparum species and underestimate their prevalence and severity. Traditional methods for diagnosing malaria may present low specificity or sensitivity to non-falciparum spp. Therefore, there is high demand for new alternative methods able to differentiate Plasmodium species in a faster, cheaper and easier manner to execute. This review details the classical procedures and new perspectives of diagnostic methods for malaria non-falciparum differential detection and the possibilities of their application in different circumstances.

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2022-JAMA
TL;DR: Prevention and treatment of malaria depend on the species and the drug sensitivity of parasites from the region of acquisition, and several options exist for chemoprophylaxis and selection should be based on patient characteristics and preferences.
Abstract: Importance Malaria is caused by protozoa parasites of the genus Plasmodium and is diagnosed in approximately 2000 people in the US each year who have returned from visiting regions with endemic malaria. The mortality rate from malaria is approximately 0.3% in the US and 0.26% worldwide. Observations In the US, most malaria is diagnosed in people who traveled to an endemic region. More than 80% of people diagnosed with malaria in the US acquired the infection in Africa. Of the approximately 2000 people diagnosed with malaria in the US in 2017, an estimated 82.4% were adults and about 78.6% were Black or African American. Among US residents diagnosed with malaria, 71.7% had not taken malaria chemoprophylaxis during travel. In 2017 in the US, P falciparum was the species diagnosed in approximately 79% of patients, whereas P vivax was diagnosed in an estimated 11.2% of patients. In 2017 in the US, severe malaria, defined as vital organ involvement including shock, pulmonary edema, significant bleeding, seizures, impaired consciousness, and laboratory abnormalities such as kidney impairment, acidosis, anemia, or high parasitemia, occurred in approximately 14% of patients, and an estimated 0.3% of those receiving a diagnosis of malaria in the US died. P falciparum has developed resistance to chloroquine in most regions of the world, including Africa. First-line therapy for P falciparum malaria in the US is combination therapy that includes artemisinin. If P falciparum was acquired in a known chloroquine-sensitive region such as Haiti, chloroquine remains an alternative option. When artemisinin-based combination therapies are not available, atovaquone-proguanil or quinine plus clindamycin is used for chloroquine-resistant malaria. P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi are typically chloroquine sensitive, and treatment with either artemisinin-based combination therapy or chloroquine for regions with chloroquine-susceptible infections for uncomplicated malaria is recommended. For severe malaria, intravenous artesunate is first-line therapy. Treatment of mild malaria due to a chloroquine-resistant parasite consists of a combination therapy that includes artemisinin or chloroquine for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. P vivax and P ovale require additional therapy with an 8-aminoquinoline to eradicate the liver stage. Several options exist for chemoprophylaxis and selection should be based on patient characteristics and preferences. Conclusions and Relevance Approximately 2000 cases of malaria are diagnosed each year in the US, most commonly in travelers returning from visiting endemic areas. Prevention and treatment of malaria depend on the species and the drug sensitivity of parasites from the region of acquisition. Intravenous artesunate is first-line therapy for severe malaria.

9 citations

DOI
31 Oct 2021
TL;DR: An overview of the field evaluation and a comparison of the methods used for the diagnosis of malaria by European laboratories is reported in this paper, showing that the development of numerous innovations is continuous.
Abstract: Accurate, prompt, and reliable tools for the diagnosis of malaria are crucial for tracking the successes or drawbacks of control and elimination efforts, and for future programs aimed at global malaria eradication. Although microscopy remains the gold standard method, the number of imported malaria cases and the risk of reappearance of autochthonous cases stimulated several laboratories located in European countries to evaluate methods and algorithms suited to non-endemic settings, where skilled microscopists are not always available. In this review, an overview of the field evaluation and a comparison of the methods used for the diagnosis of malaria by European laboratories is reported, showing that the development of numerous innovations is continuous. In particular, the combination of rapid diagnostic tests and molecular assays with microscopy represents a reliable system for the early diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic settings.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2022-Biology
TL;DR: This review found insufficient availability of WGS within sub-Saharan Africa which bears the highest malaria burden and proposed that if malaria elimination is to be achieved in this region, laboratories should be strategically equipped with WGS machines, where clinical isolates could be received and processed affordably within the region.
Abstract: Simple Summary Malaria is one of the most severe life-threatening human vector-borne diseases worldwide today, leading to high mortality. Children under the age of five and pregnant women in many developing countries are the most vulnerable groups. However, significant reduction has been achieved globally. This is owed to the advancement in technology. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is such a high throughput technology, which provides unprecedented relevant information concerning malaria parasite genomes used to study malaria pathology. Here, we present the roles of WGS in malaria elimination. This review also found insufficient availability of WGS within sub-Saharan Africa which bears the highest malaria burden and proposed that if malaria elimination is to be achieved in this region, laboratories should be strategically equipped with WGS machines, where clinical isolates could be received and processed affordably within the region. Abstract Malaria elimination remains an important goal that requires the adoption of sophisticated science and management strategies in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) is making whole genome sequencing (WGS) a standard today in the field of life sciences, as PCR genotyping and targeted sequencing provide insufficient information compared to the whole genome. Thus, adapting WGS approaches to malaria parasites is pertinent to studying the epidemiology of the disease, as different regions are at different phases in their malaria elimination agenda. Therefore, this review highlights the applications of WGS in disease management, challenges of WGS in controlling malaria parasites, and in furtherance, provides the roles of WGS in pursuit of malaria reduction and elimination. WGS has invaluable impacts in malaria research and has helped countries to reach elimination phase rapidly by providing required information needed to thwart transmission, pathology, and drug resistance. However, to eliminate malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with high malaria transmission, we recommend that WGS machines should be readily available and affordable in the region.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 May 2022-Parasite
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that XN-31 was a reliable method for patient follow-up on days 3, 7, and 28 and provided an accurate diagnosis in 1 min, it may reduce the time interval before treatment and thus improve the outcome of patient who have malaria.
Abstract: Malaria diagnosis based on microscopy is impaired by the gradual disappearance of experienced microscopists in non-endemic areas. Aside from the conventional diagnostic methods, fluorescence flow cytometry technology using Sysmex XN-31, an automated haematology analyser, has been registered to support malaria diagnosis. The aim of this prospective, monocentric, non-interventional study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the XN-31 for the initial diagnosis or follow-up of imported malaria cases compared to the reference malaria tests including microscopy, loop mediated isothermal amplification, and rapid diagnostic tests. Over a one-year period, 357 blood samples were analysed, including 248 negative and 109 positive malaria samples. Compared to microscopy, XN-31 showed sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 97.13–100) and specificity of 98.39% (95% CI: 95.56–100) for the initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases. Moreover, it provided accurate species identification asfalciparumor non-falciparumand parasitaemia determination in a very short time compared to other methods. We also demonstrated that XN-31 was a reliable method for patient follow-up on days 3, 7, and 28. Malaria diagnosis can be improved in non-endemic areas by the use of dedicated haematology analysers coupled with standard microscopy or other methods in development, such as artificial intelligence for blood slide reading. Given that XN-31 provided an accurate diagnosis in 1 min, it may reduce the time interval before treatment and thus improve the outcome of patient who have malaria.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of NHP-NHP infection model systems can be found in this article , with emphasis on modern systems biological approaches to studying longitudinal infections, pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccines.
Abstract: "The Primate Malarias" book has been a uniquely important resource for multiple generations of scientists, since its debut in 1971, and remains pertinent to the present day. Indeed, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been instrumental for major breakthroughs in basic and pre-clinical research on malaria for over 50 years. Research involving NHPs have provided critical insights and data that have been essential for malaria research on many parasite species, drugs, vaccines, pathogenesis, and transmission, leading to improved clinical care and advancing research goals for malaria control, elimination, and eradication. Whilst most malaria scientists over the decades have been studying Plasmodium falciparum, with NHP infections, in clinical studies with humans, or using in vitro culture or rodent model systems, others have been dedicated to advancing research on Plasmodium vivax, as well as on phylogenetically related simian species, including Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium coatneyi, and Plasmodium knowlesi. In-depth study of these four phylogenetically related species over the years has spawned the design of NHP longitudinal infection strategies for gathering information about ongoing infections, which can be related to human infections. These Plasmodium-NHP infection model systems are reviewed here, with emphasis on modern systems biological approaches to studying longitudinal infections, pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccines. Recent discoveries capitalizing on NHP longitudinal infections include an advanced understanding of chronic infections, relapses, anaemia, and immune memory. With quickly emerging new technological advances, more in-depth research and mechanistic discoveries can be anticipated on these and additional critical topics, including hypnozoite biology, antigenic variation, gametocyte transmission, bone marrow dysfunction, and loss of uninfected RBCs. New strategies and insights published by the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC) are recapped here along with a vision that stresses the importance of educating future experts well trained in utilizing NHP infection model systems for the pursuit of innovative, effective interventions against malaria.

4 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This poster presents a probabilistic procedure to quantify the numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative parasites found in the blood of Malaria patients infected with E.coli.

1,409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the circumsporozoite protein genes were sequenced for eight isolates that had been microscopically identified as P knowlesi by microscopy.

1,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genus- and species-specific sequences are present within the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of the four human malaria parasites that have proven to be more sensitive and accurate than by routine diagnostic microscopy.

836 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nested PCR assay described is a sensitive technique for collecting accurate malaria epidemiologic data when coupled with simple blood spot sampling, it is particularly useful for screening communities in remote regions of the world.
Abstract: A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that uses Plasmodium genus-specific primers for the initial PCR (nest 1) amplification and either genus- or species-specific primers for the nest 2 amplifications was tested on laboratory and field samples. With in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples, it was capable of detecting six parasites/microl of blood using DNA prepared from 25-microl blood spots on filter paper. The assay was evaluated on fingerprick blood samples collected on filter paper from 129 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area in Malaysia. Malaria prevalence by genus-specific nested PCR was 35.6% (46 of 129) compared with 28.7% (37 of 129) by microscopy. The nested PCR detected seven more malaria samples than microscopy in the first round of microscopic examination, malaria in three microscopically negative samples, six double infections identified as single infections by microscopy and one triple infection identified as a double infection by microscopy. The nested PCR assay described is a sensitive technique for collecting accurate malaria epidemiologic data. When coupled with simple blood spot sampling, it is particularly useful for screening communities in remote regions of the world.

543 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is presented that the proportion of patients who have successive relapses is relatively constant and that the factor which activates hypnozoites and leads to regular interval relapse in vivax malaria is the systemic febrile illness itself, which has important implications for the assessment of radical treatment efficacy and for malaria control and elimination.
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of febrile illness in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and the horn of Africa. Plasmodium vivax infections are characterized by relapses of malaria arising from persistent liver stages of the parasite (hypnozoites) which can be prevented only by 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarials. Tropical P. vivax relapses at three week intervals if rapidly eliminated anti-malarials are given for treatment, whereas in temperate regions and parts of the sub-tropics P. vivax infections are characterized either by a long incubation or a long-latency period between illness and relapse - in both cases approximating 8-10 months. The epidemiology of the different relapse phenotypes has not been defined adequately despite obvious relevance to malaria control and elimination. The number of sporozoites inoculated by the anopheline mosquito is an important determinant of both the timing and the number of relapses. The intervals between relapses display a remarkable periodicity which has not been explained. Evidence is presented that the proportion of patients who have successive relapses is relatively constant and that the factor which activates hypnozoites and leads to regular interval relapse in vivax malaria is the systemic febrile illness itself. It is proposed that in endemic areas a large proportion of the population harbours latent hypnozoites which can be activated by a systemic illness such as vivax or falciparum malaria. This explains the high rates of vivax following falciparum malaria, the high proportion of heterologous genotypes in relapses, the higher rates of relapse in people living in endemic areas compared with artificial infection studies, and, by facilitating recombination between different genotypes, contributes to P. vivax genetic diversity particularly in low transmission settings. Long-latency P. vivax phenotypes may be more widespread and more prevalent than currently thought. These observations have important implications for the assessment of radical treatment efficacy and for malaria control and elimination.

525 citations

Trending Questions (1)
What are the limitations of traditional malaria diagnostic methods?

The limitations of traditional malaria diagnostic methods include low specificity or sensitivity to non-falciparum species, neglecting their prevalence and severity.