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Dielectric resonator antenna handbook

01 Jan 2007-
Abstract: In recent years, the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) has emerged as a new and viable alternative to conventional low-gain elements such as dipoles, monopoles, and microstrip patches. This practical resource presents complete, up-to-date details on DRAs in a single volume. The book provides you with clear guidance on the mode of operation and radiation behavior of DRAs, the main methods of excitation, and the major advances in DRA technology. This hands-on reference equips you with simple equations and graphs that help you rapidly design DRAs of spherical, cylindrical, and rectangular shapes, without having to resort to complex analytical or numerical calculations. You find guidelines for designing feeds required to excite the DRAs, such as probes, apertures, and microstrip lines. In addition, the book offers you various techniques for enhancing the bandwidth performance of DRAs for wideband applications. You learn how to design low profile DRAs and DRAs with circular polarization. Several approaches for designing linear and planar DRAs arrays are also considered. Moreover, this comprehensive book provides advice on the fabrication of DRAs and measurement methods used to characterize their performance. Numerous design examples are included to give you a sense of the versatility that DRAs afford.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a historical review of the research carried out on dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) over the last three decades and highlight major research activities in each decade.
Abstract: This article presents a historical review of the research carried out on dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) over the last three decades. Major research activities in each decade are highlighted. The current state of the art of dielectric-resonator-antenna technology is then reviewed. The achievable performance of dielectric resonator antennas designed for compactness, wide impedance bandwidth, low profiles, circular polarization, or high gain are illustrated. The latest developments in dielectric-resonator-antenna arrays and fabrication techniques are also examined.

494 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the data for all reported low-loss microwave dielectric ceramic materials are collected and tabulated and the table of these materials gives the relative permittivity, quality factor, temperature variation of the resonant frequency, crystal structure, sintering temperature, measurement
Abstract: In addition to the constant demand of low-loss dielectric materials for wireless telecommunication, the recent progress in the Internet of Things (IoT), the Tactile Internet (fifth generation wireless systems), the Industrial Internet, satellite broadcasting and intelligent transport systems (ITS) has put more pressure on their development with modern component fabrication techniques Oxide ceramics are critical for these applications, and a full understanding of their crystal chemistry is fundamental for future development Properties of microwave ceramics depend on several parameters including their composition, the purity of starting materials, processing conditions and their ultimate densification/porosity In this review the data for all reported low-loss microwave dielectric ceramic materials are collected and tabulated The table of these materials gives the relative permittivity, quality factor, temperature variation of the resonant frequency, crystal structure, sintering temperature, measurement

452 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2012
TL;DR: The basic characteristics of dielectric resonator antennas are explained, with emphasis on the effect of the form factor on their resonance (operating) frequencies.
Abstract: This paper explains the basic characteristics of dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs), with emphasis on the effect of the form factor on their resonance (operating) frequencies. It is followed by discussions on their recent developments in higher order mode, circularly polarized, dual function, and transparent designs over the last few years. The idea of using glass DRAs as decoration antennas is proposed and demonstrated for the first time.

237 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The physical basis of the light-matter interaction at the transition from the RF to optical regime is reviewed, the extension of antenna theory as needed for the design of impedance-matched optical antenna-load coupled systems are discussed, and several examples of the state of the art in design strategies are provided and suggest future extensions.
Abstract: The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g.,?atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light?matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna?load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna?load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an antenna resonance, (ii) subsequent transformation of that mode into a nanoscale spatial localization, and (iii) near-field coupling via an enhanced local density of states to a quantum load. These three steps define the goal of efficient transformation of incident radiation into a quantum excitation in an impedance-matched fashion. We review the physical basis of the light?matter interaction at the transition from the RF to optical regime, discuss the extension of antenna theory as needed for the design of impedance-matched optical antenna?load coupled systems, and provide several examples of the state of the art in design strategies and suggest future extensions. We furthermore suggest new performance metrics based on the combination of electric vector field, field enhancement and capture cross section measurement to aid in comparison between different antenna designs and optimization of optical antenna performance within the physical parameter space.

228 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different MIMO antenna design techniques and all of their mutual coupling reduction techniques through various structures and mechanisms are presented with multiple examples and characteristics comparison.
Abstract: In recent years, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennas with the ability to radiate waves in more than one pattern and polarization play a great role in modern telecommunication systems. This paper provides a theoretical review of different mutual coupling reduction techniques in MIMO antenna systems. The increase in the mutual coupling can affect the antenna characteristics drastically and therefore degrades the performance of the MIMO systems. It is possible to improve the performance partially by calibrating the mutual coupling in the digital domain. However, the simple and effective approach is to use the techniques, such as defected ground structure, parasitic or slot element, complementary split ring resonator, and decoupling networks which can overcome the mutual coupling effects by means of physical implementation. An extensive discussion on the basis of different mutual coupling reduction techniques, their examples, and comparative study is still rare in the literature. Therefore, in this paper, different MIMO antenna design techniques and all of their mutual coupling reduction techniques through various structures and mechanisms are presented with multiple examples and characteristics comparison.

197 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental investigation of the radiation and circuit properties of a resonant cylindrical dielectric cavity antenna has been undertaken, and a simple theory utilizing the magnetic wall boundary condition is shown to correlate well with measured results for radiation patterns and resonant frequencies.
Abstract: An experimental investigation of the radiation and circuit properties of a resonant cylindrical dielectric cavity antenna has been undertaken. The radiation patterns and input impedance have been measured for structures of various geometrical aspect ratios, dielectric constants, and sizes of coaxial feed probes. A simple theory utilizing the magnetic wall boundary condition is shown to correlate well with measured results for radiation patterns and resonant frequencies.

1,434 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the resonant frequencies and radiation Q-factors of the lowest order "magnetic-dipole" modes are derived on the basis of a first-order theory.
Abstract: Theoretical and experimental investigations on rectangular dielectric resonator antennas having a value of /spl epsiv//sub r/, in the range of 10 to 100 are reported. The resonant frequencies and radiation Q-factors of the lowest order "magnetic-dipole" modes are derived on the basis of a first-order theory. The accuracy of the model in predicting the resonant frequency and radiation Q-factor is verified by comparison with results of a rigorous theory and experiments. Various feeds for the antennas such as probe, microstrip slot, and microstrip line are described. Measured radiation patterns are shown and the effect of feed and mode degeneracy on the cross-polarisation levels is discussed.

703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an antenna consisting of a resonant dielectric hemisphere on top of a ground plane is investigated, with emphasis on the lowest-order mode that results in efficient radiation in the direction perpendicular to the ground plane.
Abstract: An antenna consisting of a resonant dielectric hemisphere on top of a ground plane is investigated. Calculations of the internal and external fields are made with emphasis on the lowest-order mode that results in efficient radiation in the direction perpendicular to the ground plane. Measured input impedance data are also presented for a practical radiator.

389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an antenna which consists of a resonant rectangular parallelepiped dielectric on top of a ground plane is described, and the effects of feed probe length variations are discussed.
Abstract: An antenna which consists of a resonant rectangular parallelepiped dielectric on top of a ground plane is described. Calculated radiation patterns and measured impedances are presented, and the effects of feed probe length variations are discussed.

322 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a circular polarization design of microstrip antennas and dielectric resonator (DR) antennas through a cross slot of unequal slot lengths in the ground plane of a microstrip line, which results in the excitation of two near-degenerate orthogonal modes of near equal amplitudes and 90/spl deg/phase difference.
Abstract: Circular polarization (CP) design of microstrip antennas and dielectric resonator (DR) antennas through a cross slot of unequal slot lengths in the ground plane of a microstrip line is demonstrated. The proposed CP design is achieved by choosing a suitable size of the coupling cross slot, which results in the excitation of two near-degenerate orthogonal modes of near-equal amplitudes and 90/spl deg/ phase difference. This CP design can be applied to both configurations of microstrip antennas and DR antennas and has the advantages of easy fine-tuning and less sensitivity to the manufacturing tolerances, as compared to their respective conventional single-feed CP designs. For the proposed design applied to a low-profile circular disk DR antenna of very high permittivity studied here, a large CP bandwidth, determined from 3-dB axial ratio, as high as 3.91% is also obtained. Details of the proposed antenna designs are described, and experimental results of the CP performance are presented and discussed.

243 citations