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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CSITE.2021.100911

Diesel-oxygenated fuels ternary blends with nano additives in compression ignition engine: A step towards cleaner combustion and green environment

02 Mar 2021-Case Studies in Thermal Engineering (Elsevier)-Vol. 25, pp 100911
Abstract: The Jatropha biodiesel is a promising source to substitute diesel fuel, but it has some drawbacks like high viscosity. Thus, in this research attempts to enhance the utilization of Jatropha biodiesel in a CI engine by using higher alcohols and graphene oxide nano-additives (GO). The higher alcohols are n-butanol (B), n-heptanol (H), and n-octanol (O). Combines of 40 vol% diesel (D), 50 vol% biodiesel (J), and 10% alcohols (B, H, and O) are formulated as DJB, DJH, and DJO. These mixtures explored with and without the supplement of 50 mg/L of GO. The burning, exergy, and emissions features are scrutinized exploiting a CI engine. The average burning pressure and NRoHR are comparable for all analyzed fuels, with slight augmentation counted for DJBGO. GO additives advance the burning phasing with minimum delay times. DJO and DJB augment BTE by 10% and 13%, respectively. The implanting of GO enriches BTE by 15%. The UHC, and smoke intensity are lowered by 60 %, 70, and 80%, respectively, whereas the NOx intensity is engorged by 13 %. It can be deduced that higher alcohols and GO facilitate increasing the Jatropha biodiesel fraction in the mixture with appropriate diesel engine performance enhancement.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (59%), Diesel engine (56.99%), Biodiesel (56%) ... show more
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11 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENCONMAN.2021.114268
Ahmed I. EL-Seesy1, Ahmed I. EL-Seesy2, Mahmoud S. Waly1, Zhixia He2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Methanol is considered a favorable renewable fuel for use in diesel engines owing to its advantageous features including sustainability, accessibility, and reasonable price. However, some drawbacks, such as the phase separation problem, low cetane number, and high latent heat of vaporization, hinder its utilization in diesel engines. This study attempted to improve the usability of methanol in diesel engines using n-octanol and diethyl ether as cosolvents and ignition improvers. The experimental part was divided into two stages. First, the stabilities of pure methanol and hydrous methanol, with waste cooking oil biodiesel as a base fuel, were investigated under different temperatures: 10 °C, 20 °C, and 30 °C. The results demonstrated that the pure methanol/waste cooking oil biodiesel mixtures remained stable at all temperatures. To improve the solubility of the hydrous methanol/waste cooking oil biodiesel blends, n-octanol was applied as a cosolvent. Next, the engine combustion and emission features were assessed using three ratios of pure methanol/waste cooking oil biodiesel blends with n-octanol and diethyl ether additives. The three combinations included 15%, 25%, and 35% methanol with 10% n-octanol and 2.5% diethyl ether. The waste cooking oil biodiesel was produced via the transesterification method, and the final product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The fuels were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis, and their physicochemical properties were determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standards. The highest cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and pressure rise rate were lower for the methanol/waste cooking oil biodiesel/n-octanol/ diethyl ether blends compared with the waste cooking oil biodiesel. In addition, the thermal efficiency reduced, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased for the mixtures compared with the waste cooking oil biodiesel. Relative to engine emissions, the nitrogen oxide levels also reduced, while the carbon monoxide and smoke opacity increased for the combinations compared with the waste cooking oil biodiesel.

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Topics: Biodiesel (65%), Diesel fuel (64%), Diesel engine (56.99%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2021.121784
01 Jan 2022-Fuel
Abstract: Diesel engine characteristics investigated numerically and experimentally while adding different concentrations of alumina Nano particle to the castor oil biodiesel. Experimental work conducted on single cylinder diesel engine taking into account different conditions of load. The Russian diesel-rk software is used to perform the numerical part. Three doses of Al2O3 are added to 20% CME biodiesel starting from 25 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm. Numerically it is observed that adding 25 ppm Al2O3 to 20% CME reduced BSFC by 16.66% while it was 14.86% in the experimental results. The hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are reduced significantly compared to the case of 20%CME biodiesel. The experimental findings showed that with 25 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm of Al2O3 to biodiesel (20%CME), the opacity of smoke are decreased by 5.2%, 12%, and 17.0%. Maximum reduction in NOX is obtained for 25 ppm Al2O3 where 11% is recorded followed by 4.89% and 4.32% in case of 50 ppm and 100 ppm respectively. Best concentration of Nano addition is 25 ppm since no noticeable change is captured beyond (25) ppm for all parameters under scope. The numerical results are validated with experimental findings as well as with the results of other researchers.

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Topics: Diesel engine (56%), NOx (56%), Biodiesel (55%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AEJ.2021.07.038
Abstract: Biodiesel is composed of various types of methyl ester compounds with different concentrations. The role of unsaturation degree was observed through single-molecule droplet combustion from three fatty acid methyl ester compounds. This research was conducted under normal gravity at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Analysis of droplet combustion characteristics was observed along the heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion stages. The cis configuration and allyl groups in unsaturated molecules related to different unsaturation degrees affect the droplet combustion process. Allyl and bis-allyl groups play an important role in accelerating hydrogen atom abstraction due to the weaker bond dissociation energy of the C H bond adjacent to the carbon double bond. The lower energy gap in unsaturated molecules is prone to electron excitation. Increasing the unsaturation degree resulted in shorter ignition delay and burning duration but higher droplet temperature, burning rate constant, specific power output, and flame dimensions. Soot particles formed above the flame tip on the unsaturated molecules gave a higher flame dimension. A high concentration of linoleic methyl ester in biodiesel fuel is recommended due to of high power output. However, the soot formation at a higher level of unsaturation degree should be considered.

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Topics: Degree of unsaturation (55%), Fatty acid methyl ester (54%), Combustion (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CSITE.2021.101100
M.S. Gad1, Zhixia He2, A.S. EL-Shafay3, A.S. EL-Shafay4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Essential oils are promising sources for producing alternative fuel, owing to their sustainability and obtainability. Thus, this article aimed to investigate the impacts of introducing mandarin-essential oil with diesel fuel on the engine performance operated under numerous loads and a fixed speed of 1500 rpm. There are two mixing ratios of 10% and 20% mandarin essential oil and 80%, and 90% diesel fuel, which are signified as MO10 and MO20, respectively. Then, the Diesel-RK model is used to predict the influence of adding propanol (10% by volume) to (90%) mandarin-essential oil with applying EGR of 1%, 3% and 5% approach. The Egyptian-mandarin-essential oil is characterized using gas-chromatography–mass-spectrometry analysis, and its physical properties are measured corresponding to ASTM standard. The experimental findings demonstrate that the cylinder pressure and HRR are decreased by 3% and 2.5%, respectively, with the supplement of mandarin-essential-oil with diesel fuel. The CO, UHC, and smoke opacity are lowered by (17%, 30%), (20%, 40%), and (27%, 44%) for MO10 and MO20 combinations, compared with the base fuel, while the NOx intensity is inflated by 25% and 45% respectively. Specific fuel consumption is decreased by 5% and 22% for MO10 and MO20 blends, respectively. The validation indicates a decent acceptance among the experimental and simulation data. The simulation findings demonstrate that the EGR approach effectively lowers the NOx level with the minimum effect on the soot level.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (64%), Diesel engine (61%), Thrust specific fuel consumption (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CSITE.2021.101162
Abstract: In this article, biodiesel is prepared from the Egyptian sheep fat oil applying the transesterification process, which is detrimental to the ecosystem and paid for its elimination. Then its physicochemical properties are measured according to the ASTM standard. Also, the produced biodiesel is assessed utilizing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The two blending ratios of diesel and sheep biodiesel are mixed in volume proportions of 10% and 20%, and they are denoted as B10 and B20. The combustion and emissions parameters are evaluated utilizing a CI engine fueled with pure diesel fuel, B10, and B20 combinations under variable loads. The burning findings demonstrate that the peak pressure and maximum HRR are lower for B10 in contrast with base fuel, while the B20 combination indicates an improvement in the cylinder pressure and HRR. A related tendency is remarked for pressure rise rate and mean cylinder temperature. There is a sizeable drop in the HC, CO, and smoke levels for B10 and B20 mixtures compared to base fuel, while the NOx emission is marginally enlarged. It can be inferred that the mixture of B20 gives a substantial improvement in engine performance and emissions.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (67%), Diesel engine (64%), Biodiesel (61%) ... show more

1 Citations


References
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67 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1971-
Abstract: 1 Introduction 2 Basic Concepts 3 Analysis of Experimental Data 4 Basic Electrical Measurements and Sensing Devices 5 Displacement and Area Measurements 6 Pressure Measurement 7 Flow Measurement 8 The Measurement of Temperature 9 Thermal and Transport-Property Measurements 10 Force, Torque, and Strain Measurements 11 Motion and Vibration Measurement 12 Thermal and Nuclear-Radiation Measurements 13 Air-Pollution Sampling and Measurement 14 Data Acquisition and Processing 15 Report Writing and Presentations 16 Design of Experiments Appendix A-Conversion Factors and Material Properties Appendix B-Digital Imaging Systems

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2,940 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jun 1985-
Abstract: Fundamental operating principles early internal combustion engine development, characteristics of internal combusion engines, additional types of internal combustion engine, prospects for internal combustion engines, thermodynamic principles introduction and definitions of efficience, ideal air standard cycles, comparison between thermodynamic and mechanical cycles, additional performance parameters for internal combustion engines, fuel-air cycle, computer models, combustion and fuels combustion chemistry and fuel chemistry, combustion thermodynamics, dissociation, combustion in spark ignition engines, combustion in compression ignition engines, fuels and additives, engine emissions, combustion modelling, spark ignition engines combustion chambers, catalysts and emissions from spark ignition engines, mixture preparation, electronic control engines, compression ignition engines direct injection (DI) systems, indirect injection (IDI) systems, cold starting of compression ignition engines, fuel injection equipment, diesel engine emissions, induction and exhaust processes valve gear, flow characteristics of poppet valves, valve timing, unsteady compressible fluid flow, manifold, silencing, two stroke engines two stroke gas flow performance parameters, scavenging systems, scavenge modelling, experimental techniques for evaluating scavenge and results for port flow co-efficients, engine performance and technology, in-cylinder motion flow measurement techniques, turbulence, turbocharging radial flow and axial flow machines, turbocharging the compression ignition engine, turbocharging the spark ignition engine, engine modelling zero-dimensional modelling, application of modelling to a turbocharged medium speed diesel engine, mechanical design considerations the disposition and number of the cylinders, cylinder block and head materials, the piston and rings, the connecting-rod, crankshaft, camshaft and valves, lubrication and bearings, advanced design concepts, heat transfer in internal combustion engines engine cooling, liquid coolant systems, experimental facilities quasi-steady engine instrumentation, experimental accuracy, measurement of exhaust emissions, computer based combustion analysis, advanced test systems, case studies Jaguar V12 HE engine, Chrysler 2.2 litre spark ignition engine, Ford 2.5 litre DI diesel engine. Appendices: the use of SI units answers to numerical problems engine specifications stratified charge engines engine tuning.

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1,095 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PECS.2014.04.003
Abstract: Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale, also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion.

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Topics: Alcohol fuel (61%), Combustion (57.99%), Biofuel (56%) ... show more

525 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FUEL.2016.02.076
15 Jul 2016-Fuel
Abstract: Higher alcohols are important alternative fuel resources for use in internal combustion engines promising positive economical and environmental outcomes. Moreover, higher alcohols are advantageous over lower alcohols due to their better blending capabilities, hydrophobic properties, higher cetane numbers and calorific value. The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the basic fuel properties of the ternary blends of diesel (D), waste oil methyl ester (biodiesel (B)) and the higher alcohols of propanol (Pro), n-butanol (nB) and 1-pentanol (Pn), and their effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. As test fuels four different blends were prepared by volume: 50%D–50%B (D50B50), 40%D–40%B–20%Pro (D40B40Pro20), 20%nB (D40B40nB20) and 20%Pn (D40B40Pn20). Addition of higher alcohols to diesel–biodiesel blend improved especially the cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP), while slightly decreased density, lower heating value, kinematic viscosity, cetane number and flash point. In order to determine engine performance and exhaust emissions, tests were performed at four engine loads (1, 3, 6, 9 kW) with a constant engine speed (1800 rpm). Based on the engine performance and exhaust emissions, D40B40Pro20 had higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values than the ternary blends of D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 at all engine loads. The exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) of D40B40Pro20, D40B40nB20 and D40B40Pn20 were higher than that of the diesel–biodiesel blend. All blends of the higher alcohols reduced oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions as 1-pentanol, n-butanol and propanol were the most to least effective alcohols respectively. However, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were increased with the addition of the alcohols to the blends. When the effects of higher alcohols on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are compared in terms of emission reduction, the order from best to worst was as follows: D40B40Pn20, D40B40nB20.

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Topics: Diesel fuel (61%), Diesel engine (60%), Cetane number (60%) ... show more

223 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1243/14680874JER06510
Jamil Ibrahim Ghojel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Analytical functions approximating the burn rate in internal combustion engines are useful and cost-effective tools for engine cycle simulations. Most functions proposed to date are based on the law of normal distribution of a continuous random variable. The best known of these is the Wiebe function, which is used to predict the burn fraction and burn rate in internal combustion engines operating with different combustion systems and fuels. These include direct injection (DI) and indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines, classical spark ignition (SI) engines and gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, engines with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). This paper is a tribute to the lasting legacy of the Wiebe function and to the man behind it, Ivan Ivanovitch Wiebe. It includes a historical background to the development of the function in the mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, the controversy that surrounded its introduction, a description of t...

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Topics: Homogeneous charge compression ignition (61%), Ignition system (56%), Indirect injection (56%) ... show more

194 Citations