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Journal ArticleDOI

Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review

15 Jan 2011-Food Chemistry (Elsevier)-Vol. 124, Iss: 2, pp 411-421

Abstract: Incidental products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. These fibre-rich by-products can fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. They may also serve as functional ingredients to improve physical and structural properties of hydration, oil holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. Analytic methods and fractionation techniques of dietary fibres are evaluated.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Hannah D. Holscher1Institutions (1)
27 Feb 2017-Gut microbes
TL;DR: The current knowledge of the impact of fiber and prebiotic consumption on the composition and metabolic function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota is reviewed, including the effects of physiochemical properties of complex carbohydrates, adequate intake and treatment dosages, and the phenotypic responses related to the composition of thehuman microbiota.
Abstract: The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the mic...

506 citations


Cites background from "Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-pro..."

  • ...naturally found in the diet in whole grains such as oats and barley (b-glucan) and fruits such as apples (pectin).(26,28) Slowed glucose absorption and binding of bile acids—the mechanisms underlying the physiological benefits of psyllium, b-glucans, and pectin —are also purported to impact the gastrointestinal microbiota....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Exotic fruit consumption and processing is increasing worldwide due to the improvement in preservation techniques, transportation, marketing systems and consumer awareness of health benefits. The entire body of tropical exotic fruits is rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic constituents, carotenoids, vitamins and dietary fiber. However, the fruit processing industry deals with the large percentage of byproducts, such as peels, seeds and unused flesh, generated in the different steps of the processing chains. In most cases, the wasted byproducts can present similar or even higher contents of bioactive compounds than the final produce does. The aim of this review is to promote the production and processing of exotic fruits highlighting the possibility of the integral exploitation of byproducts rich in bioactive compounds. Amongst the possible uses for these compounds that can be found in the food industry are as antioxidants (avoiding browning and lipid oxidation and as functional food ingredients), antimicrobials, flavoring, colorants and texturizer additives. Finally, the importance of extraction techniques of bioactive compounds designated as food additives is also included.

404 citations


Cites background from "Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-pro..."

  • ...Additionally, fiber-rich byproducts may be incorporated into food products as inexpensive, non-caloric bulking agents for partial replacement of flour, fat or sugar, as enhancers of water and oil retention and to improve emulsion or oxidative stabilities (Elleuch et al., 2011)....

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  • ...Incorporation of rich-fiber byproducts, including wheat bran in breakfast cereals, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran in bread and peach dietary fiber concentrate in jam have been investigated by Elleuch et al. (2011)....

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  • ...However, the percentage of fiber that may be added to foods is finite, because it can cause undesirable changes in color, taste and texture of foods (Elleuch et al., 2011)....

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  • ...The use of fibers in dairy products is also widespread (Elleuch et al., 2011): e.g. fiber improves the texture of ice cream, providing a uniformly smooth bulk, desirable resistance to melting, and improves handling properties primarily by hindering crystal growth, as temperature fluctuates during…...

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  • ...The food industry can take advantage of the physicochemical properties of fiber to improve the viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics and shelf-life of their products (Elleuch et al., 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Inclusion of indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

368 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Elena M. Balboa1, Enma Conde1, Andrés Moure1, Elena Falqué1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jun 2013-Food Chemistry
TL;DR: In vitro antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants.
Abstract: Research on the bioactives from seaweeds has increased in recent years. Antioxidant activity is one of the most studied, due to the interest of these compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food and cosmetics and also due to their health implications, mainly in relation to their potential as functional ingredients. Brown algae present higher antioxidant potential in comparison with red and green families and contain compounds not found in terrestrial sources. In vitro antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants. Particular emphasis on the fucoidan and phlorotannin polymeric fractions is given, considering variations associated with the species, collection area, season, and extraction and purification technologies.

287 citations


Cites background from "Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-pro..."

  • ..., 2003), their composition, functional and antioxidant properties have been reported (Cofrades et al., 2010; Elleuch et al., 2011; Rupérez & Saura-Calixto, 2001)....

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  • ...Comparative data on the polysaccharide content in brown algae (Holdt & Kraan, 2011; O’Sullivan et al., 2010; Zvyagintseva et al., 2003), their composition, functional and antioxidant properties have been reported (Cofrades et al., 2010; Elleuch et al., 2011; Rupérez & Saura-Calixto, 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2012-Food Chemistry
TL;DR: Exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity and a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

259 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DRIs represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances.
Abstract: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI activity is a comprehensive effort undertaken to include current concepts about the role of nutrients and food components in long-term health, going beyond deficiency diseases. The DRIs consist of 4 reference intakes: the RDA, which is to be used as a goal for the individual; the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which is given to assist in advising individuals what levels of intake may result in adverse effects if habitually exceeded; the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the intake level at which the data indicate that the needs for 50% of those consuming it will not be met; and the Adequate Intake (AI), a level judged by the experts developing the reference intakes to meet the needs of all individuals in a group, but which is based on much less data and substantially more judgment than that used in establishing an EAR and subsequently the RDA. When an RDA cannot be set, an AI is given. Both are to be used as goals for an individual. Two reports have been issued providing DRIs for nutrients and food components reviewed to date: these include calcium and its related nutrients: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; and most recently, folate, the B vitamins, and choline. The approaches used to determine the DRIs, the reference values themselves, and the plans for future nutrients and food components are discussed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98: 699–706 .

4,979 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
P.J. Van Soest1, R. H. Wine1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A rapid procedure for determining cellwall constituents of plants consista of the determination of the fiber insoluble in neutral detergent and is applicable to all feedstuffs. The standardization of the method is based on a nutritional concept which defines fiber as insoluble vegetable matter which is indigestible by proteolytic and diastatic enzymes and which cannot be utilized except by microbial fennentation in the digestive tracts of animais.

2,313 citations


Book
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient. Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also: * Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds. * Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role. * Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups. * Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health. This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

1,724 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2001-Phytochemistry
TL;DR: The view of critical questions regarding pectin structure, biosynthesis, and function that need to be addressed in the coming decade are presented and new methods that may be useful to study localized pectins in the plant cell wall are described.
Abstract: Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides present in all plant primary cell walls. The complicated structure of the pectic polysaccharides, and the retention by plants of the large number of genes required to synthesize pectin, suggests that pectins have multiple functions in plant growth and development. In this review we summarize the current level of understanding of pectin primary and tertiary structure, and describe new methods that may be useful to study localized pectin structure in the plant cell wall. We also discuss progress in our understanding of how pectin is biosynthesized and review the biological activities and possible modes of action of pectic oligosaccharides referred to as oligogalacturonides. We present our view of critical questions regarding pectin structure, biosynthesis, and function that need to be addressed in the coming decade. As the plant community works towards understanding the functions of the tens of thousands of genes expressed by plants, a large number of those genes are likely to be involved in the synthesis, turnover, biological activity, and restructuring of pectin. A combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical and chemical approaches will be necessary to fully understand the function and biosynthesis of pectin.

1,673 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Judith A. Marlett1, Joanne L. SlavinInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually not in a form suitable for the critically ill. Maintenance of body weight in the inactive older adult is accomplished in part by decreasing food intake. Even with a fiber-rich diet, a supplement may be needed to bring fiber intakes into a range adequate to prevent constipation. By increasing variety in the daily food pattern, the dietetics professional can help most healthy children and adults achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes.

1,390 citations


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