scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: I. animal performance, nitrogen balance, meat characteristics, and fat composition.

01 Jan 1998-Journal of Animal Science (American Society of Animal Science)-Vol. 76, Iss: 1, pp 249-259

TL;DR: Cattle exhibiting compensatory growth had higher redness, yellowness, cooking losses, and drip losses, but had lower Warner-Bratzler peak shear force values and the saturated fatty acid content of the fat decreased with the duration of the LGP.
Abstract: Thirty double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls were maintained at a rate of gain of .5 kg/d during four periods of time, 115 (G2), 239 (G3), or 411 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP), before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Ten control animals (CG) were fed a diet rich in energy and protein. The G2, G3, and G4 were fed a diet low in energy and protein and the same diet as CG during RGP. Live weight was recorded biweekly, feed intake (FI) daily, and nitrogen balance at three times for each group. At the slaughterhouse, the 7, 8, and 9th ribs were removed to determine carcass composition, meat quality, and meat and fat composition. Compensatory growth reached a maximum 2 mo after refeeding and then decreased rapidly, leading to a sharp increase in the feed conversion ratio. Nitrogen balance was higher in compensating groups ( P < .05). Compensating animals had higher carcass connective and adipose tissue contents (P < .05) but lower meat fat content (P < .05). Cattle exhibiting compensatory growth had higher redness, yellowness, cooking losses, and drip losses, but had lower Warner-Bratzler peak shear force values. The saturated fatty acid content of the fat decreased with the duration of the LGP. During the first 2 mo after refeeding, compensatory growth in double-muscled bulls was ascribed to one or more of the following mechanisms: higher FI, lower maintenance requirements, or better efficiency of lean meat production. Compensatory growth at the expense of higher FI increased peripheral fat but decreased intramuscular fat deposition.
Topics: Compensatory growth (organism) (56%), Feed conversion ratio (54%), Intramuscular fat (54%), Nitrogen balance (53%), Belgian Blue (52%)

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

page -1-
COMPENSATORY GROWTH IN DOUBLE MUSCLED BULLS
1
2
3
Different Periods of Feed Restriction Before Compensatory Growth in Belgian Blue Bulls:
4
I. Animal Performance, Nitrogen Balance, Meat Characteristics and Fat Composition
1
5
6
J. L. Hornick
2
, C. Van Eenaeme, A. Clinquart, M. Diez, and L. Istasse
7
8
9
10
Department of Nutrition, Veterinary Faculty, Sart Tilman
11
B43 4000 Liège, Belgium
12
13
Phone: 32-(0)4-3664139
14
Fax: 32-(0)4-3664122
15
E-mail: HORNICK@.STAT.ULG.FMV.AC.BE.
16
17
18
19
20
21
1
The IRSIA (Institut pour l'Encouragement de la Recherche dans l'Industrie et l'Agriculture,
Brussels, Belgium) is gratefully acknowledged for financial help.
2
To whom correspondence should be addressed.

page -2-
ABSTRACT: Thirty double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls were maintained at a rate of gain of .5 kg/d
1
during four length of time, 4 (G2), 8 (G3) or 14 (G4) mo (low growth period, LGP), before fattening
2
(rapid growth period, RGP). Ten control animals (CG) were fed a high-energy, high-protein diet. The
3
G2, G3, and G4 were fed a low-energy, low-protein diet during LGP and the same diet as CG during
4
RGP. Live weight was recorded biweekly, feed consumption (FC) daily, and nitrogen balance at 3
5
occasions in each group. At the slaughterhouse, the 7, 8, and 9th ribs were removed to determine
6
carcass composition, meat quality, and meat and fat composition. Compensatory growth reached a
7
maximum 2 mo after refeeding. The G2 and G4 exhibited compensatory growth ( P < .05) and had
8
higher daily FC ( P < .001). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased sharply after refeeding. Nitrogen
9
balance was higher in compensating groups ( P < .05). Compensating animals had higher carcass
10
connective and adipose tissue contents ( P < .05) but lower meat fat content (P < .05). Cattle exhibiting
11
compensatory growth had higher redness, yellowness, hue, cooking losses and drip losses, but tended
12
to have lower Warner-Bratzler peak shear force (WBPSF) values. The saturated fatty acid (SFA)
13
content of the fat decreased with the length of the LGP. Compensatory growth in double-muscled bulls
14
at the expense of higher feed intake increased peripheral fat but decreased intramuscular fat deposition.
15
16
Key Words: Belgian Blue Bulls, Compensatory Growth, Animal Performance, Carcass, Meat, Fatty
17
Acids
18

page -3-
Introduction
1
2
Compensatory growth is the ability of an animal to exhibit, after disease (Thomas et al., 1978) or
3
feed restriction (Wilson and Osborn, 1960), larger growth rates than in unaffected animals of the same
4
chronological age. In cattle, compensatory growth is well expressed when feed restriction occurs at a
5
relatively late stage of life (Berge, 1991; Berge et al., 1991). Factors contributing to compensation are
6
increases in feed intake (Baker et al., 1992), increases in gut-fill weight, or higher efficiency of feed
7
utilization (Carstens et al., 1991). The response varies according to the pattern of undernutrition and
8
realimentation, and stage of development of the animal (Wilson and Osborne, 1960). The Belgian Blue
9
breed, double-muscled type, is a large beef breed with early maturity, characterized by high average
10
daily gain, low feed conversion ratio, and high quality of carcass (Clinquart et al., 1991). Currently,
11
there is no published work on compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls. Therefore, an experiment
12
was conducted with Belgian Blue bulls in order to study the effects of a restricted growth, lasting for
13
three different durations, on fattening performances. Results are presented in 2 papers. This paper
14
summarizes animal performance, nitrogen balance, and carcass, meat, and fat characteristics.
15
16
Materials and Methods
17
18
Animals and Management
19
The Animal Care and Use Council of our institute approved the use and treatment of animals in
20
this study. A total of 40 Belgian Blue bulls, double-muscled type, initial age and weight range of 9.7
21
mo and 310 ± 38 kg, were divided into four groups of similar live weight. In each group, four animals
22
were randomly penned in individual stalls allowing for collection of urine and feces, and the remaining
23

page -4-
six were housed in a stanchion barn with straw as bedding. Each group was randomly assigned to one
1
of the four treatments. The first group (control, CG) was given from the beginning ad libitum access to
2
a fattening diet allowing for rapid growth. The fattening diet was based on sugar beet pulp
3
complemented with cereals, protein from vegetable origin, and a mineral mixture (Table 1). During
4
three periods with different lengths of time, the other groups received a limited quantity of a low-
5
energy, low-protein diet calculated to support an ADG of .5 kg daily gain (LGP, low growth period).
6
The low growth diet was based on pelleted straw complemented with dried lucerne, cereals, protein
7
from vegetable origin, and mineral mixture. The three groups, namely groups 2, 3, and 4 (G2, G3, G4),
8
received the low-growth diet for 115, 239, and 411 d, respectively. Subsequently, G2, G3 and G4 were
9
adapted to the concentrate fattening diet over a 15-d period of transition. The amount of concentrate
10
feed was then progressively increased and animals were allowed to consume their ration on an ad
11
libitum basis for about 1 mo after the beginning of the transition period. The concentrate diet was
12
offered during the rapid growth period (RGP) which lasted until the animals were slaughtered. The
13
animals were fed twice daily at 0600 and 1400 and were slaughtered per group when mean live weight
14
reached at least 600 kg and when the average daily gain (ADG) was lower than 1 kg/d at two
15
consecutive measurements.
16
17
Measurements
18
Feed intake of the bulls was recorded each day and live weight at 15-d intervals. Feed samples
19
were withdrawn at regular intervals for chemical analysis. At the slaughterhouse, abdominal fat was
20
removed from the carcass. Carcass weight was recorded and pH of both Longissimus thoracis muscles
21
were measured (7, 8, 9 ribs) 1, 2, and 4 h postmortem using a Portamess 751 knick pH-meter (Knick
22

page -5-
GmbH & Co, Berlin, Germany) with an Ingold "penetration" pH-electrode (Ingold AG, Urdorf,
1
Switzerland).
2
Two days after slaughter, the 7, 8, and 9th ribs were removed from the carcass. They were
3
dissected in order to separate lean meat, fat and connective tissue, and bones. Regressions of Martin
4
and Torreele (1962) for double muscled cattle were then used to assess the composition of the carcass.
5
Meat quality was determined from one 2.5-cm-thick cut of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Five
6
measurements of the final pH were performed on this cut at 48 h postmortem using the technique
7
described above. At the same time, the HunterLab Labscan II device was used for objectively
8
measuring CIE Lab brightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) on 5 spots 2.5 cm diameter. Hue
9
was estimated by a*/b* ratio. Seven days later, the cut was weighed in order to estimate drip loss, and
10
heated in open plastic bags in a waterbath for 50 min at 75°C. After heating, they were cooled in cold
11
tap water to room temperature, bags were drained, and cuts were mopped gently dry with paper tissue.
12
The difference between raw and heated weights was recorded as cooking loss and expressed as a
13
percentage of the raw weight. Warner-Bratzler shear force was determined with a Lloyd LR5K
14
perpendicular to the fiber direction on 10, 1.25-cm-diameter cores obtained from the heated cuts.
15
The dry matter, ash, ether extract, and crude protein concentrations of the diets were determined
16
according to official procedures (AOAC, 1975). The lipids from peripheral, intermuscular and
17
intramuscular fat samples were extracted and saponified as described by Ter Meulen et al. (1975). The
18
fatty acid composition of fat samples was determined by gas chromatography.
19
20
Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling
21
Bulls were blocked (n = 10) by group (Figure 1). One-way analysis of variance, using group as a
22
factor of variation, was used to analyze data. Data relative to muscle, connective and adipose tissue,
23

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Jean-Luc Hornick1, C. Van Eenaeme1, O. Gerard1, Isabelle Dufrasne1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: The role of plasma IGF-I during compensatory growth is not clear and must be explained in connection with changes of its binding proteins, which seem to have a permissive effect on growth.
Abstract: Growth is an integrated process, resulting from the response of cells dependent on the endocrine status and nutrient availability. During feed restriction, the production and secretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland are enhanced, but the number of GH receptors decreases. Changes of GH binding proteins induce GH resistance and are followed by reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. On the other hand, high circulating levels of GH enhance the mobilization of fatty acids, which are used to support energy requirements. Thus, when feed restriction in growing animals is moderate, there is mainly protein but barely fat accretion. By contrast, a severe feed restriction enhances the release of catabolic hormones and stimulates, from muscle cells, the liberation of amino acids, which are used by hepatocytes for gluconeogenesis. During refeeding and compensatory growth, the secretion of insulin is sharply enhanced and plasma GH concentrations remain high. This situation probably allows more nutrients to be used for growth processes. The role of plasma IGF-I during compensatory growth is not clear and must be explained in connection with changes of its binding proteins. Thyroxin and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine seem to have a permissive effect on growth. The simultaneous occurrence of puberty with refeeding can exert a synergistic effect on growth. Initially, compensatory growth is characterized by the deposition of very lean tissue, similar as during feed restriction. This lasts for some weeks. Then, protein synthesis decreases and high feed intake leads to increased fat deposition.

395 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2003
TL;DR: It is now becoming clear that variation in other factors such as the muscle fibre type composition and the buffering capacity of the muscle together with the breed and nutritional status of the animals may also contribute to the observed variation in meat tenderness.
Abstract: Meat quality is a term used to describe a range of attributes of meat. Consumer research suggests that tenderness is a very important element of eating quality and that variations in tenderness affect the decision to repurchase. The present paper highlights recent information on the factors that affect tenderness. While the precise aetiology is not fully understood, a number of factors have been shown to affect tenderness. Of these factors, postmortem factors, particularly temperature, sarcomere length and proteolysis, which affect the conversion of muscle to meat, appear most important. However, it is now becoming clear that variation in other factors such as the muscle fibre type composition and the buffering capacity of the muscle together with the breed and nutritional status of the animals may also contribute to the observed variation in meat tenderness.

329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Daniël Demeyer1, M Doreau2Institutions (2)
01 Aug 1999
TL;DR: The review ends with a consideration of the limits to the modification of ruminant fats, involving considerations of consumer acceptance as well as animal welfare and environmental effects.
Abstract: Beef and dairy products suffer from a negative health image, related to the nature of their lipid fraction. Rumen lipid metabolism involves the presence of saturated lipids in ruminant tissues. Lipolysis, fatty acid biohydrogenation and formation of microbial fatty acids in the rumen and their effects on rumen outflow of fatty acids are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the formation of trans-fatty acids and the possibilities of decreasing biohydrogenation. Small differences in intestinal digestibilities of fatty acids are mentioned, followed by a discussion on transfer of absorbed fatty acids into milk and adipose tissue lipids. The preferential retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as the balance between synthesis and incorporation of fatty acids in tissues is described. Dietary means for the modification of milk fat are listed, with special emphasis on the possibilities for enrichment in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the presence of conjugated linoleic acids. A description of the nature and development of fat depots in beef cattle is followed by a discussion of breed, conformation and feed effects on adipose tissue distribution and fatty acid composition. Special emphasis is given to the very lean Belgian Blue double-muscled breed. The review ends with a consideration of the limits to the modification of ruminant fats, involving considerations of consumer acceptance as well as animal welfare and environmental effects.

267 citations


Cites background from "Different periods of feed restricti..."

  • ...Feeding animals at low intake levels, followed by re-alimentation, increases the proportion of subcutaneous lipid, at the expense of intramuscular lipid (Hornick et al. 1998)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: During compensatory growth, protein turn-over was increased and positively related to the length of the ad libitum period as indicated by the concentration of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) (P).
Abstract: The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different time spans of ad libitum feeding of pigs prior to slaughter after a period of restricted feeding on performance and texture characteristics of the meat. Te n litters of five pigs (Duroc ✕ Landrace ✕ Large White crosses) were allocated to five feeding treatments (AA, R28A42, R43A27, R52A18 and R60A10) at the age of 70 days. AA-pigs were given ad libitum a concentrate diet from day 70 to slaughter at day 140 (approx. 100 kg live weight). R28A42, R43A27, R52A18 and R60A10 pigs were given food at a restricted level (0·6 of ad libitum) for 28, 43, 52 and 60 days, respectively, followed by ad libitum feeding for 42, 27, 18 and 10 days, respectively, until slaughter at day 140. All pigs that had been given food at a restricted level for a period (R28A42, R43A27, R52A18 and R60A10) showed a compensatory growth response in the subsequent ad libitum period. However, only pigs on ad libitum for a minimum of 27 days prior to slaughter (R28A42 and R43A27) had carcass weights and muscle mass similar to that of the control pigs (AA) at slaughter. The restricted feeding increased meat proportion, whereas the feeding strategies had no effect on technological meat quality traits (pH24, drip loss and CIE-colour traits: L*, a* and b*). During compensatory growth, protein turn-over was increased and positively related to the length of the ad libitum period as indicated by the concentration of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) (P < 0·10), the activity of µ-calpain (P < 0·01) and the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) 1 day post mortem in m. longissimus dorsi (P < 0·08) and the solubility of collagen (P < 0·01). Although not significant, the shear force at day 1 followed the same pattern of improvement as the MFI. The concentration of eEF-2 increased at a faster rate following transition to ad libitum feeding than did the activity of µ-calpain. This suggests that muscle protein synthesis increases at a faster rate after change to ad libitum feeding and reaches the same level as in the control pigs (AA) before muscle protein degradation. This time lag between the increase in protein synthesis and degradation could explain the compensatory growth response and it also suggests that in order to use the compensatory growth mechanism to improve tenderness, the optimal time of slaughter may not coincide with the period of highest growth rates, but may occur at a later stage, when muscle protein degradation is maximal. For pigs slaughtered at 100 kg live weight, we expect muscle protein degradation to be maximal some time beyond 42 days of ad libitum feeding prior to slaughter.

99 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
L. O. Fiems, S. De Campeneere, S. De Smet1, G. Van de Voorde1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: This study shows that double-muscled animals belong to a sub-population of the Belgian Blue breed rather than deviants from the non-double-Muscled animal andFat characteristics of the carcass and meat showed only limited predictive power for meat tenderness and colour.
Abstract: Four hundred and thirty-three double-muscled and two hundred and two non-double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls, with mean cold carcass weights of 470±27 and 414±33 kg, respectively, were studied to investigate the relationships between the SEUROP fat grade, the anatomical fat content in the carcass (adipose tissue) and the chemical fat content in the Longissimus thoracis The relationships between the shear force value and the lightness of the meat and fat characteristics were also studied A moderate correlation was found between the fat characteristics within each data set with correlation coefficients, ranging from 04 to 06 The correlation coefficients increased to 070–085 when the data sets were pooled Fat characteristics of the carcass and meat showed only limited predictive power (R2<015) for meat tenderness and colour This study also shows that double-muscled animals belong to a sub-population of the Belgian Blue breed rather than deviants from the non-double-muscled animal

95 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20213
20204
20194
20184
20178
20163