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Journal ArticleDOI

Differential Behaviors of Atrial Versus Ventricular Fibroblasts A Potential Role for Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in Atrial-Ventricular Remodeling Differences

01 Apr 2008-Circulation (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)-Vol. 117, Iss: 13, pp 1630-1641

TL;DR: Atrial fibroblasts behave differently than ventricular fibro Blasts over a range of in vitro and in vivo paradigms, with atrial Fibroblast showing enhanced reactivity that may explain greater atrial fibrotic responses.

AbstractBackground— In various heart disease paradigms, atria show stronger fibrotic responses than ventricles. The possibility that atrial and ventricular fibroblasts respond differentially to pathological stimuli has not been examined. Methods and Results— We compared various morphological, secretory, and proliferative response indexes of canine atrial versus ventricular fibroblasts. Cultured atrial fibroblasts showed faster cell surface area increases, distinct morphology at confluence, and greater α-smooth muscle actin expression than ventricular fibroblasts. Atrial fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation) responses were consistently greater for a range of growth factors, including fetal bovine serum, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and transforming growth factor-β1. Normal atrial tissue showed larger myofibroblast density compared with ventricular tissue, and the difference was exaggerated by congestive heart failure. Congesti...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A translational overview on the biological basis of atrial remodeling and the proarrhythmic mechanisms involved in the fibrillation process is given.
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an arrhythmia that can occur as the result of numerous different pathophysiological processes in the atria. Some aspects of the morphological and electrophysiological al...

926 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The types of atrial remodeling, their underlying pathophysiology, the molecular basis of their occurrence, and finally, their potential therapeutic significance are reviewed.
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice It can occur at any age but is very rare in children and becomes extremely common in the elderly, with a prevalence approaching 20% in patients >85 years of age1 AF is associated with a wide range of potential complications and contributes significantly to population morbidity and mortality Present therapeutic approaches to AF have major limitations, including limited efficacy and significant adverse effect liability These limitations have inspired substantial efforts to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying AF, with the premise that improved mechanistic insights will lead to innovative and improved therapeutic approaches2 Our understanding of AF pathophysiology has advanced significantly over the past 10 to 15 years through an increased awareness of the role of “atrial remodeling” Any persistent change in atrial structure or function constitutes atrial remodeling Many forms of atrial remodeling promote the occurrence or maintenance of AF by acting on the fundamental arrhythmia mechanisms illustrated in Figure 1 Both rapid ectopic firing and reentry can maintain AF Reentry requires a suitable vulnerable substrate, as well as a trigger that acts on the substrate to initiate reentry Ectopic firing contributes to reentry by providing triggers for reentry induction Atrial remodeling has the potential to increase the likelihood of ectopic or reentrant activity through a multitude of potential mechanisms This article reviews the types of atrial remodeling, their underlying pathophysiology, the molecular basis of their occurrence, and finally, their potential therapeutic significance Figure 1 General schema representing AF mechanisms and the role of remodeling The mechanisms underlying AF are portrayed schematically in Figure 2 AF can be maintained by rapid focal firing, which may itself be regular but result in fibrillatory activity because of wave breakup in portions of the atrium that …

875 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ways in which cardiac disease states, extracardiac factors, and abnormal genetic control lead to the arrhythmia are discussed, including the potential therapeutic implications that might arise from an improved mechanistic understanding.
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an extremely common cardiac rhythm disorder that causes substantial morbidity and contributes to mortality. The mechanisms underlying AF are complex, involving both increased spontaneous ectopic firing of atrial cells and impulse reentry through atrial tissue. Over the past ten years, there has been enormous progress in understanding the underlying molecular pathobiology. This article reviews the basic mechanisms and molecular processes causing AF. We discuss the ways in which cardiac disease states, extracardiac factors, and abnormal genetic control lead to the arrhythmia. We conclude with a discussion of the potential therapeutic implications that might arise from an improved mechanistic understanding.

437 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding the complex pathophysiological processes and dynamic changes of AF-associated inflammation might help to identify specific anti-inflammatory strategies for the prevention of AF.
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. However, the development of preventative therapies for AF has been disappointing. The infiltration of immune cells and proteins that mediate the inflammatory response in cardiac tissue and circulatory processes is associated with AF. Furthermore, the presence of inflammation in the heart or systemic circulation can predict the onset of AF and recurrence in the general population, as well as in patients after cardiac surgery, cardioversion, and catheter ablation. Mediators of the inflammatory response can alter atrial electrophysiology and structural substrates, thereby leading to increased vulnerability to AF. Inflammation also modulates calcium homeostasis and connexins, which are associated with triggers of AF and heterogeneous atrial conduction. Myolysis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the activation of fibrotic pathways via fibroblasts, transforming growth factor-β and matrix metalloproteases are also mediated by inflammatory pathways, which can all contribute to structural remodelling of the atria. The development of thromboembolism, a detrimental complication of AF, is also associated with inflammatory activity. Understanding the complex pathophysiological processes and dynamic changes of AF-associated inflammation might help to identify specific anti-inflammatory strategies for the prevention of AF.

407 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive understanding of AF pathophysiology is expected to foster the development of improved pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches and to greatly improve clinical management.
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AF is expected to continue to rise with the aging of the population. AF is generally considered to be a progressive condition, occurring first in a paroxysmal form, then in persistent, and then long-standing persistent (chronic or permanent) forms. However, not all patients go through every phase, and the time spent in each can vary widely. Research over the past decades has identified a multitude of pathophysiological processes contributing to the initiation, maintenance, and progression of AF. However, many aspects of AF pathophysiology remain incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular electrophysiology of AF initiation, maintenance, and progression, predominantly based on recent data obtained in human tissue and animal models. The central role of Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities in both focal ectopic activity and AF substrate progression is discussed, along with the underlying molecular basis. We also deal with the ionic determinants that govern AF initiation and maintenance, as well as the structural remodeling that stabilizes AF-maintaining re-entrant mechanisms and finally makes the arrhythmia refractory to therapy. In addition, we highlight important gaps in our current understanding, particularly with respect to the translation of these concepts to the clinical setting. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of AF pathophysiology is expected to foster the development of improved pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches and to greatly improve clinical management.

399 citations


Cites background from "Differential Behaviors of Atrial Ve..."

  • ...in fibrosis (Figure 5), with atrial fibroblasts showing greater fibrotic responses compared with ventricular fibroblasts.(77) MicroRNA-21 plays a major role in profibrotic remodeling by reducing Sprouty-1....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that cardiac fibrosis is associated with the emergence of fibroblasts originating from endothelial cells, suggesting an endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) similar to events that occur during formation of the atrioventricular cushion in the embryonic heart.
Abstract: Cardiac fibrosis, associated with a decreased extent of microvasculature and with disruption of normal myocardial structures, results from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which is mediated by the recruitment of fibroblasts. The source of these fibroblasts is unclear and specific anti-fibrotic therapies are not currently available. Here we show that cardiac fibrosis is associated with the emergence of fibroblasts originating from endothelial cells, suggesting an endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) similar to events that occur during formation of the atrioventricular cushion in the embryonic heart. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induced endothelial cells to undergo EndMT, whereas bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) preserved the endothelial phenotype. The systemic administration of recombinant human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7) significantly inhibited EndMT and the progression of cardiac fibrosis in mouse models of pressure overload and chronic allograft rejection. Our findings show that EndMT contributes to the progression of cardiac fibrosis and that rhBMP-7 can be used to inhibit EndMT and to intervene in the progression of chronic heart disease associated with fibrosis.

1,723 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental CHF strongly promotes the induction of sustained AF by causing interstitial fibrosis that interferes with local conduction, with important potential implications for understanding, treating, and preventing AF related to CHF.
Abstract: Background—Studies of atrial fibrillation (AF) due to atrial tachycardia have provided insights into the remodeling mechanisms by which “AF begets AF” but have not elucidated the substrate that initially supports AF before remodeling occurs. We studied the effects of congestive heart failure (CHF), an entity strongly associated with clinical AF, on atrial electrophysiology in the dog and compared the results with those in dogs subjected to rapid atrial pacing (RAP; 400 bpm) with a controlled ventricular rate (AV block plus ventricular pacemaker at 80 bpm). Methods and Results—CHF induced by 5 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (220 to 240 bpm) increased the duration of AF induced by burst pacing (from 8±4 seconds in control dogs to 535±82 seconds; P<0.01), similar to the effect of 1 week of RAP (713±300 seconds). In contrast to RAP, CHF did not alter atrial refractory period, refractoriness heterogeneity, or conduction velocity at a cycle length of 360 ms; however, CHF dogs had a substantial increase in th...

1,292 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cultured fetal and adult human fibroblasts maintained key features of HOX gene expression patterns established during embryogenesis, suggesting that HOX genes may direct topographic differentiation and underlie the detailed positional memory in fibro Blasts.
Abstract: A fundamental feature of the architecture and functional design of vertebrate animals is a stroma, composed of extracellular matrix and mesenchymal cells, which provides a structural scaffold and conduit for blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and leukocytes. Reciprocal interactions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are known to play a critical role in orchestrating the development and morphogenesis of tissues and organs, but the roles played by specific stromal cells in controlling the design and function of tissues remain poorly understood. The principal cells of stromal tissue are called fibroblasts, a catch-all designation that belies their diversity. We characterized genome-wide patterns of gene expression in cultured fetal and adult human fibroblasts derived from skin at different anatomical sites. Fibroblasts from each site displayed distinct and characteristic transcriptional patterns, suggesting that fibroblasts at different locations in the body should be considered distinct differentiated cell types. Notable groups of differentially expressed genes included some implicated in extracellular matrix synthesis, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling pathways that control proliferation, cell migration, and fate determination. Several genes implicated in genetic diseases were found to be expressed in fibroblasts in an anatomic pattern that paralleled the phenotypic defects. Finally, adult fibroblasts maintained key features of HOX gene expression patterns established during embryogenesis, suggesting that HOX genes may direct topographic differentiation and underlie the detailed positional memory in fibroblasts.

990 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jun 1996-Cell
TL;DR: The two PDGF null phenotypes reveal analogous morphogenetic functions for myofibroblast-type cells in lung and kidney organogenesis, and show that PDGF-B is required in the ontogeny of kidney mesangial cells.
Abstract: A mouse platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A) null allele is shown to be homozygous lethal, with two distinct restriction points, one prenatally before E10 and one postnatally. Postnatally surviving PDGF-A-deficient mice develop lung emphysema secondary to the failure of alveolar septation. This is apparently caused by the loss of alveolar myofibroblasts and associated elastin fiber deposits. PDGF alpha receptor-positive cells in the lung having the location of putative alveolar myofibroblast progenitors were specifically absent in PDGF-A null mutants. We conclude that PDGF-A is crucial for alveolar myofibroblast ontogeny. We have previously shown that PDGF-B is required in the ontogeny of kidney mesangial cells. The PDGFs therefore appear to regulate the generation of specific populations of myofibroblasts during mammalian development. The two PDGF null phenotypes also reveal analogous morphogenetic functions for myofibroblast-type cells in lung and kidney organogenesis.

824 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Nov 1990-Cell
TL;DR: TGF-beta induces proliferation of connective tissue cells at low concentrations by stimulating autocrine PDGF-AA secretion, which at higher concentrations of TGF- beta, is decreased by down-regulation of PDGF receptor alpha subunits and perhaps by direct growth inhibition.
Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) acts as a growth inhibitor, yet it can stimulate proliferation; 1-2 fg/cell of TGF-beta 1 elicits maximal proliferation of dense and sparse cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs), whereas higher amounts are less stimulatory. This bimodal response is not limited to SMCs, as TGF-beta induces a similar response in human fibroblasts and chondrocytes. The amount of TGF-beta 1 per cell that induces maximal proliferation is identical for dense and sparse SMCs. At low concentrations of TGF-beta, there is a 10-12 hr delay in DNA synthesis compared with that elicited by PDGF. PDGF-AA is detected in the culture medium at 24 hr, and anti-PDGF IgG blocks DNA synthesis. At higher concentrations, TGF-beta 1 decreases transcripts and expression of PDGF receptor alpha subunits. Hence, TGF-beta induces proliferation of connective tissue cells at low concentrations by stimulating autocrine PDGF-AA secretion, which at higher concentrations of TGF-beta, is decreased by down-regulation of PDGF receptor alpha subunits and perhaps by direct growth inhibition.

749 citations