scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book ChapterDOI

Differential Power Analysis

15 Aug 1999-Vol. 1666, pp 388-397
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine specific methods for analyzing power consumption measurements to find secret keys from tamper resistant devices. And they also discuss approaches for building cryptosystems that can operate securely in existing hardware that leaks information.
Abstract: Cryptosystem designers frequently assume that secrets will be manipulated in closed, reliable computing environments. Unfortunately, actual computers and microchips leak information about the operations they process. This paper examines specific methods for analyzing power consumption measurements to find secret keys from tamper resistant devices. We also discuss approaches for building cryptosystems that can operate securely in existing hardware that leaks information.

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Book
14 Feb 2002
TL;DR: The underlying mathematics and the wide trail strategy as the basic design idea are explained in detail and the basics of differential and linear cryptanalysis are reworked.
Abstract: 1. The Advanced Encryption Standard Process.- 2. Preliminaries.- 3. Specification of Rijndael.- 4. Implementation Aspects.- 5. Design Philosophy.- 6. The Data Encryption Standard.- 7. Correlation Matrices.- 8. Difference Propagation.- 9. The Wide Trail Strategy.- 10. Cryptanalysis.- 11. Related Block Ciphers.- Appendices.- A. Propagation Analysis in Galois Fields.- A.1.1 Difference Propagation.- A.l.2 Correlation.- A. 1.4 Functions that are Linear over GF(2).- A.2.1 Difference Propagation.- A.2.2 Correlation.- A.2.4 Functions that are Linear over GF(2).- A.3.3 Dual Bases.- A.4.2 Relationship Between Trace Patterns and Selection Patterns.- A.4.4 Illustration.- A.5 Rijndael-GF.- B. Trail Clustering.- B.1 Transformations with Maximum Branch Number.- B.2 Bounds for Two Rounds.- B.2.1 Difference Propagation.- B.2.2 Correlation.- B.3 Bounds for Four Rounds.- B.4 Two Case Studies.- B.4.1 Differential Trails.- B.4.2 Linear Trails.- C. Substitution Tables.- C.1 SRD.- C.2 Other Tables.- C.2.1 xtime.- C.2.2 Round Constants.- D. Test Vectors.- D.1 KeyExpansion.- D.2 Rijndael(128,128).- D.3 Other Block Lengths and Key Lengths.- E. Reference Code.

3,444 citations

Book
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: This guide explains the basic mathematics, describes state-of-the-art implementation methods, and presents standardized protocols for public-key encryption, digital signatures, and key establishment, as well as side-channel attacks and countermeasures.
Abstract: After two decades of research and development, elliptic curve cryptography now has widespread exposure and acceptance. Industry, banking, and government standards are in place to facilitate extensive deployment of this efficient public-key mechanism. Anchored by a comprehensive treatment of the practical aspects of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), this guide explains the basic mathematics, describes state-of-the-art implementation methods, and presents standardized protocols for public-key encryption, digital signatures, and key establishment. In addition, the book addresses some issues that arise in software and hardware implementation, as well as side-channel attacks and countermeasures. Readers receive the theoretical fundamentals as an underpinning for a wealth of practical and accessible knowledge about efficient application. Features & Benefits: * Breadth of coverage and unified, integrated approach to elliptic curve cryptosystems * Describes important industry and government protocols, such as the FIPS 186-2 standard from the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology * Provides full exposition on techniques for efficiently implementing finite-field and elliptic curve arithmetic* Distills complex mathematics and algorithms for easy understanding* Includes useful literature references, a list of algorithms, and appendices on sample parameters, ECC standards, and software toolsThis comprehensive, highly focused reference is a useful and indispensable resource for practitioners, professionals, or researchers in computer science, computer engineering, network design, and network data security.

2,893 citations

Book ChapterDOI
11 Aug 2004
TL;DR: A classical model is used for the power consumption of cryptographic devices based on the Hamming distance of the data handled with regard to an unknown but constant reference state, which allows an optimal attack to be derived called Correlation Power Analysis.
Abstract: A classical model is used for the power consumption of cryptographic devices. It is based on the Hamming distance of the data handled with regard to an unknown but constant reference state. Once validated experimentally it allows an optimal attack to be derived called Correlation Power Analysis. It also explains the defects of former approaches such as Differential Power Analysis.

2,346 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ANSI X9.62 ECDSA is described and related security, implementation, and interoperability issues are discussed, and the strength-per-key-bit is substantially greater in an algorithm that uses elliptic curves.
Abstract: The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the elliptic curve analogue of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA). It was accepted in 1999 as an ANSI standard and in 2000 as IEEE and NIST standards. It was also accepted in 1998 as an ISO standard and is under consideration for inclusion in some other ISO standards. Unlike the ordinary discrete logarithm problem and the integer factorization problem, no subexponential-time algorithm is known for the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. For this reason, the strength-per-key-bit is substantially greater in an algorithm that uses elliptic curves. This paper describes the ANSI X9.62 ECDSA, and discusses related security, implementation, and interoperability issues.

2,092 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the noise characteristics of the power signals and developed an approach to model the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using a multiple-bit attack.
Abstract: This paper examines how monitoring power consumption signals might breach smart-card security. Both simple power analysis and differential power analysis attacks are investigated. The theory behind these attacks is reviewed. Then, we concentrate on showing how power analysis theory can be applied to attack an actual smart card. We examine the noise characteristics of the power signals and develop an approach to model the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We show how this SNR can be significantly improved using a multiple-bit attack. Experimental results against a smart-card implementation of the Data Encryption Standard demonstrate the effectiveness of our multiple-bit attack. Potential countermeasures to these attacks are also discussed.

1,554 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key.
Abstract: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: (1) Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intented recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. (2) A message can be “signed” using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in “electronic mail” and “electronic funds transfer” systems. A message is encrypted by representing it as a number M, raising M to a publicly specified power e, and then taking the remainder when the result is divided by the publicly specified product, n, of two large secret primer numbers p and q. Decryption is similar; only a different, secret, power d is used, where e * d ≡ 1(mod (p - 1) * (q - 1)). The security of the system rests in part on the difficulty of factoring the published divisor, n.

14,659 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.
Abstract: In this paper we show how to divide data D into n pieces in such a way that D is easily reconstructable from any k pieces, but even complete knowledge of k - 1 pieces reveals absolutely no information about D. This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.

14,340 citations

Book
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols; more than 200 tables and figures; more than 1,000 numbered definitions, facts, examples, notes, and remarks; and over 1,250 significant references, including brief comments on each paper.

13,597 citations

Patent
30 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a secure content distribution method for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system, which includes a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers, a process of encrypting at least a portion of digital information, a protocol for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container, and a process that delivering one or multiple digital containers to a digital information user.
Abstract: PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To solve the problem, wherein it is impossible for an electronic content information provider to provide commercially secure and effective method, for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system. SOLUTION: In this system, having at least one protected processing environment for safely controlling at least one portion of decoding of digital information, a secure content distribution method comprises a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers; a process for encrypting at least a portion of digital information; a process for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container; a process for delivering one or more digital containers to a digital information user; and a process for using a protected processing environment, for safely controlling at least a portion of the decoding of the digital information. COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

7,643 citations

Book ChapterDOI
18 Aug 1996
TL;DR: By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operalions, attackers may be able to find fixed Diffie-Hellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems.
Abstract: By carefully measuring the amount of time required tm perform private key operalions, attackers may be able to find fixed Diffie-Hellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against, a valnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known ciphertext. Actual systems are potentially at risk, including cryptographic tokens, network-based cryptosystems, and other applications where attackers can make reasonably accurate timing measurements. Techniques for preventing the attack for RSA and Diffie-Hellman are presented. Some cryptosystems will need to be revised to protect against the attack, and new protocols and algorithms may need to incorporate measures to prevenl timing attacks.

3,989 citations