scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book

Digital Communications

01 Jan 1983-
About: The article was published on 1983-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 25017 citations till now.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.
Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,761 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that, even though the interuser channel is noisy, cooperation leads not only to an increase in capacity for both users but also to a more robust system, where users' achievable rates are less susceptible to channel variations.
Abstract: Mobile users' data rate and quality of service are limited by the fact that, within the duration of any given call, they experience severe variations in signal attenuation, thereby necessitating the use of some type of diversity. In this two-part paper, we propose a new form of spatial diversity, in which diversity gains are achieved via the cooperation of mobile users. Part I describes the user cooperation strategy, while Part II (see ibid., p.1939-48) focuses on implementation issues and performance analysis. Results show that, even though the interuser channel is noisy, cooperation leads not only to an increase in capacity for both users but also to a more robust system, where users' achievable rates are less susceptible to channel variations.

6,621 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple characterization of the optimal tradeoff curve is given and used to evaluate the performance of existing multiple antenna schemes for the richly scattered Rayleigh-fading channel.
Abstract: Multiple antennas can be used for increasing the amount of diversity or the number of degrees of freedom in wireless communication systems. We propose the point of view that both types of gains can be simultaneously obtained for a given multiple-antenna channel, but there is a fundamental tradeoff between how much of each any coding scheme can get. For the richly scattered Rayleigh-fading channel, we give a simple characterization of the optimal tradeoff curve and use it to evaluate the performance of existing multiple antenna schemes.

4,422 citations


Cites background from "Digital Communications"

  • ...It is well known [12] that the probability of error at high SNR (averaged over the fading gainas well as the additive noise) is In contrast, transmitting the same signal to a receiver equipped with two antennas, the error probability is Here, we observe that by having the extra receive antenna, the…...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is illustrated that, under all scenarios studied, cooperation is beneficial in terms of increasing system throughput and cell coverage, as well as decreasing sensitivity to channel variations.
Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., p.1927-38. This is the second of a two-part paper on a new form of spatial diversity, where diversity gains are achieved through the cooperation of mobile users. Part I described the user cooperation concept and proposed a cooperation strategy for a conventional code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system. Part II investigates the cooperation concept further and considers practical issues related to its implementation. In particular, we investigate the optimal and suboptimal receiver design, and present performance analysis for the conventional CDMA implementation proposed in Part I. We also consider a high-rate CDMA implementation and a cooperation strategy when assumptions about the channel state information at the transmitters are relaxed. We illustrate that, under all scenarios studied, cooperation is beneficial in terms of increasing system throughput and cell coverage, as well as decreasing sensitivity to channel variations.

3,272 citations

Book
31 Aug 1994
TL;DR: The use of infrared radiation as a medium for high-speed short-range wireless digital communication, and several modification formats, including on-off keying (OOK), pulse-position modulation (PPM), and subcarrier modulation, are discussed.
Abstract: The use of infrared radiation as a medium for high-speed short-range wireless digital communication is discussed. Available infrared links and local-area networks are described. Advantages and drawbacks of the infrared medium are compared to those of radio and microwave media. The physical characteristics of infrared channels using intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are presented including path losses and multipath responses. Natural and artificial ambient infrared noise sources are characterized. Strategies for designs of transmitter and receivers that maximize link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are described. Several modification formats are discussed in detail, including on-off keying (OOK) pulse-position modulation (PPM), and subcarrier modulation. The performance of these techniques in the presence of multipath distortion is quantified. Techniques for multiplexing the transmissions of different users are reviewed. The performance of an experimental 50-Mb/s on-off-keyed diffuse infrared link is described.

2,972 citations