scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book

Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Synthesis, Testing, and Reconfiguration Techniques

Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Fei Su1
10 Oct 2006-
TL;DR: A new book enPDFd digital microfluidic biochips synthesis testing and reconfiguration techniques to read, offering new opportunities to read and to support reading.
Abstract: Let's read! We will often find out this sentence everywhere. When still being a kid, mom used to order us to always read, so did the teacher. Some books are fully read in a week and we need the obligation to support reading. What about now? Do you still love reading? Is reading only for you who have obligation? Absolutely not! We here offer you a new book enPDFd digital microfluidic biochips synthesis testing and reconfiguration techniques to read.
Citations
More filters
Proceedings ArticleDOI
08 Jun 2008
TL;DR: A broadcast-addressing-based design technique for pin-constrained multi-functional biochips that provides high throughput for bioassays and it reduces the number of control pins by identifying and connecting control pins with "compatible" actuation sequences.
Abstract: Recent advances in digital microfluidics have enabled lab-on-a-chip devices for DNA sequencing, immunoassays, clinical chemistry, and protein crystallization. Basic operations such as droplet dispensing, mixing, dilution, localized heating, and incubation can be carried out using a two-dimensional array of electrodes and nanoliter volumes of liquid. The number of independent input pins used to control the electrodes in such microfluidic "biochips" is an important cost-driver, especially for disposable PCB devices that are being developed for clinical and point-of-care diagnostics. However, most prior work on biochip design-automation has assumed independent control of the electrodes using a large number of input pins. Another limitation of prior work is that the mapping of control pins to electrodes is only applicable for a specific bioassay. We present a broadcast-addressing-based design technique for pin-constrained multi-functional biochips. The proposed method provides high throughput for bioassays and it reduces the number of control pins by identifying and connecting control pins with "compatible" actuation sequences. The proposed method is evaluated using a multifunctional chip designed to execute a set of multiplexed bioassays, the polymerase chain reaction, and a protein dilution assay.

137 citations


Cites background from "Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Synt..."

  • ...…are now being advocated for a wide range of applications such as high-throughput DNA sequencing, immunoassays and clinical chemistry, environmental toxicity monitoring and the detection of airborne chemicals, detection of explosives such as TNT, and point-of-care diagnosis of diseases [3]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A dilution/mixing algorithm is presented that significantly reduces the production of waste droplets and also the total number of input droplets compared to earlier methods and always yields nonnegative savings in the number of waste Droplets.
Abstract: The recent emergence of lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology has led to a paradigm shift in many healthcare-related application areas, e.g., point-of-care clinical diagnostics, high-throughput sequencing, and proteomics. A promising category of LoCs is digital microfluidic (DMF)-based biochips, in which nanoliter-volume fluid droplets are manipulated on a 2-D electrode array. A key challenge in designing such chips and mapping lab-bench protocols to a LoC is to carry out the dilution process of biochemical samples efficiently. As an optimization and automation technique, we present a dilution/mixing algorithm that significantly reduces the production of waste droplets. This algorithm takes O(n) time to compute at most n sequential mix/split operations required to achieve any given target concentration with an error in concentration factor less than [1/(2n)]. To implement the algorithm, we design an architectural layout of a DMF-based LoC consisting of two O(n)-size rotary mixers and O(n) storage electrodes. Simulation results show that the proposed technique always yields nonnegative savings in the number of waste droplets and also in the total number of input droplets compared to earlier methods.

127 citations


Cites background or methods from "Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Synt..."

  • ...In contrast to microarray chips or CMF chips, DMF-based LoCs use electrical actuation to manipulate (transporting, merging, splitting, mixing, dispensing, and so on) discrete droplets of nanoliter volume of the sample or reagent fluids on a 2-...

    [...]

  • ...Descriptions of a DMF biochip and the four fundamental fluidic operations (dispensing, transporting, mixing, and splitting) have been elaborated elsewhere [1], [40], [41]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A droplet-routing method that avoids cross-contamination in the optimization of droplet flow paths and targets disjoint droplet routes and minimizes the number of cells used for droplet routing is proposed.
Abstract: Recent advances in digital microfluidics have enabled droplet-based biochip devices for DNA sequencing, immunoassays, clinical chemistry, and protein crystallization. Since cross-contamination between droplets of different biomolecules can lead to erroneous outcomes for bioassays, the avoidance of cross-contamination during droplet routing is a key design challenge for biochips. We propose a droplet-routing method that avoids cross-contamination in the optimization of droplet flow paths. The proposed approach targets disjoint droplet routes and synchronizes wash-droplet routing with functional droplet routing, in order to reduce the duration of droplet routing while avoiding the cross-contamination between different droplet routes. In order to avoid cross-contamination between successive routing steps, an optimization technique is used to minimize the number of wash operations that must be used between successive routing steps. Two real-life biochemical applications are used to evaluate the proposed droplet-routing methods.

100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a programmable electrowetting micropump has been realized to dispense and manipulate droplets in 2D with up to 1000 addressable electrodes and electronics built underneath.
Abstract: Microfluidic systems are part of an emerging technology which deals with minute amounts of liquids (biological samples and reagents) on a small scale. They are fast, compact and can be made into a highly integrated system to deliver sample purification, separation, reaction, immobilization, labelling, as well as detection, thus are promising for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and handheld healthcare devices. Miniaturized micropumps typically consist of a moving-part component, such as a membrane structure, to deliver liquids, and are often unreliable, complicated in structure and difficult to be integrated with other control electronics circuits. The trend of new-generation micropumps is moving-part-free micropumps operated by advanced techniques, such as electrokinetic force, surface tension/energy, acoustic waves. This paper reviews the development and advances of relevant technologies, and introduces electrowetting-on-dielectrics and acoustic wave-based microfluidics. The programmable electrowetting micropump has been realized to dispense and manipulate droplets in 2D with up to 1000 addressable electrodes and electronics built underneath. The acoustic wave-based microfluidics can be used not only for pumping, mixing and droplet generation but also for biosensors, suitable for single-mechanism-based lab-on-a-chip applications.

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A synthesis method is presented that incorporates control paths and an error-recovery mechanism in the design of a digital microfluidic lab-on-chip and can reduce the completion time by 30% when errors occur during the implementation of the bioassay.
Abstract: Recent advances in digital microfluidics have led to tremendous interest in miniaturized lab-on-chip devices for biochemical analysis Synthesis tools have also emerged for the automated design of lab-on-chip from the specifications of laboratory protocols However, none of these tools consider control flow or address the problem of recovering from fluidic errors that can occur during on-chip bioassay execution We present a synthesis method that incorporates control paths and an error-recovery mechanism in the design of a digital microfluidic lab-on-chip Based on error-propagation estimates, we determine the best locations for fluidic checkpoints during biochip synthesis A microcontroller coordinates the implementation of the control-flow-based bioassay by intercepting the synthesis results that are mapped to the software programs Real-life bioassay applications are used as case studies to evaluate the proposed design method For a representative protein assay, compared to a baseline chip design, the biochip with a control path can reduce the completion time by 30p when errors occur during the implementation of the bioassay

86 citations


Cites methods from "Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Synt..."

  • ...…including techniques for scheduling, module placement, and droplet routing, have been developed for the design and use of micro.uidic lab-on-chip [Chakrabarty and Su 2006; Chakrabarty and Zeng 2006, 2005; Maftei et al. 2008; Bohringer 2006; Cho and Pan 2008; Grif.th et al. 2006; Su and…...

    [...]