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Journal ArticleDOI

Digitalization and 3D Documentation Techniques Applied to Two Pieces of Visigothic Sculptural Heritage in Merida Through Structured Light Scanning

20 Aug 2021-ACM Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (ACMPUB27New York, NY, USA)-Vol. 14, Iss: 4, pp 1-19

AbstractTechnological advancements have a great impact on the dissemination and understanding of the cultural heritage reality due to innovative techniques. These innovations are based on high-precision and high-resolution technologies that allow for the geometric documentation of any object within the fields of history and the arts. Through these techniques, new proposals may be studied and objects can be placed in any historical context. Three-dimensional (3D) digitization allows one to obtain a digital 3D model, which can be handled virtually and recreated at any historical period, enabling the conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage. Society currently demands new visualization techniques that allow interacting with architectural and artistic heritage, which have been applied in numerous virtual reconstructions of historical sites or singular archaeological pieces. This project allowed us to geometrically document a reused piece with two surfaces (shield and columns) and a plaque of the city of Merida using a structured light scanner from a theoretical-practical perspective. The 3D virtual reconstruction of the pieces was accomplished within this study. The generation of QR codes enabled the interactive display of the heritage pieces. Likewise, a proposal was made to reuse the aforementioned pieces through virtual archaeology. The initial hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a Visigothic niche as an original form. This research reports significant advances in the conservation and exploitation of cultural heritage.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Fausto Bernardini1, Holly Rushmeier1
TL;DR: There is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse as cultural heritage and retail sales that will allow people to view realistic 3D objects on home computers.
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems are rapidly becoming more affordable, especially systems based on commodity electronic cameras. At the same time, personal computers with graphics hardware capable of displaying complex 3D models are also becoming inexpensive enough to be available to a large population. As a result, there is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse as cultural heritage and retail sales that will allow people to view realistic 3D objects on home computers. Although there are many physical techniques for acquiring 3D data—including laser scanners, structured light and time-of-flight—there is a basic pipeline of operations for taking the acquired data and producing a usable numerical model. We look at the fundamental problems of range image registration, line-of-sight errors, mesh integration, surface detail and color, and texture mapping. In the area of registration we consider both the problems of finding an initial global alignment using manual and automatic means, and refining this alignment with variations of the Iterative Closest Point methods. To account for scanner line-of-sight errors we compare several averaging approaches. In the area of mesh integration, that is finding a single mesh joining the data from all scans, we compare various methods for computing interpolating and approximating surfaces. We then look at various ways in which surface properties such as color (more properly, spectral reflectance) can be extracted from acquired imagery. Finally, we examine techniques for producing a final model representation that can be efficiently rendered using graphics hardware.

483 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article surveys the state-of-the-art in augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality systems as a whole and from a cultural heritage perspective and identifies specific application areas in digital cultural heritage and makes suggestions as to which technology is most appropriate in each case.
Abstract: A multimedia approach to the diffusion, communication, and exploitation of Cultural Heritage (CH) is a well-established trend worldwide. Several studies demonstrate that the use of new and combined media enhances how culture is experienced. The benefit is in terms of both number of people who can have access to knowledge and the quality of the diffusion of the knowledge itself. In this regard, CH uses augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality technologies for different purposes, including education, exhibition enhancement, exploration, reconstruction, and virtual museums. These technologies enable user-centred presentation and make cultural heritage digitally accessible, especially when physical access is constrained. A number of surveys of these emerging technologies have been conducted; however, they are either not domain specific or lack a holistic perspective in that they do not cover all the aspects of the technology. A review of these technologies from a cultural heritage perspective is therefore warranted. Accordingly, our article surveys the state-of-the-art in augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality systems as a whole and from a cultural heritage perspective. In addition, we identify specific application areas in digital cultural heritage and make suggestions as to which technology is most appropriate in each case. Finally, the article predicts future research directions for augmented and virtual reality, with a particular focus on interaction interfaces and explores the implications for the cultural heritage domain.

252 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2011
TL;DR: This paper analyzes the errors caused by global illumination in structured light-based shape recovery and designs structured light patterns that are resilient to individual global illumination effects using simple logical operations and tools from combinatorial mathematics.
Abstract: Global illumination effects such as inter-reflections, diffusion and sub-surface scattering severely degrade the performance of structured light-based 3D scanning. In this paper, we analyze the errors caused by global illumination in structured light-based shape recovery. Based on this analysis, we design structured light patterns that are resilient to individual global illumination effects using simple logical operations and tools from combinatorial mathematics. Scenes exhibiting multiple phenomena are handled by combining results from a small ensemble of such patterns. This combination also allows us to detect any residual errors that are corrected by acquiring a few additional images. Our techniques do not require explicit separation of the direct and global components of scene radiance and hence work even in scenarios where the separation fails or the direct component is too low. Our methods can be readily incorporated into existing scanning systems without significant overhead in terms of capture time or hardware. We show results on a variety of scenes with complex shape and material properties and challenging global illumination effects.

125 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A trial application of a structuredlight scanner is reported here on, to create 3D representations of excavated surfaces and associated artifacts at two Middle Paleolithic sites in southwest France, which are very good representations of the originals in terms of colors and spatial details.
Abstract: Archaeologists strive to document the process of excavation and discovery as completely as possible. Over the past several decades archaeologists have incorporated a growing number of computerized techniques for documenting archaeological finds. Scanning is one such technique. There are a number of technologies that now allow archaeologists to scan structures, excavation surfaces and in situ artifacts to create high-resolution, 3D data sets. We report here on a trial application of one of these, a structuredlight scanner, to create 3D representations of excavated surfaces and associated artifacts at two Middle Paleolithic sites in southwest France. In each instance, surfaces of approximately 2.5 m 2 were scanned in approximately 1 day. The resulting data sets are very good representations of the originals in terms of colors and spatial details, and as such provided an important piece of archaeological documentation. To use this equipment successfully in the field, however, required solving a number of logistical issues, and the amount of time required to learn to use this equipment was significant. Once these issues are addressed, this technology is appropriate for documenting extraordinary, unique finds where time and costs are offset by the importance of good documentation.

85 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for carrying out the non-invasive analysis of artworks. THz waves can penetrate opaque materials and they can perform three-dimensional material mapping non-destructively by spectroscopic imaging. Several attempts have been made to analyse artworks. Clear results, such as imaging of hidden art by using model paintings, have been obtained by many institutions. We succeeded to observe the first ever non-invasive cross-sectional image of a tempera masterpiece by Giotto. These results prove that THz technology can yield useful information in art conservation science.

78 citations