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Journal ArticleDOI

Digitalization and 3D Documentation Techniques Applied to Two Pieces of Visigothic Sculptural Heritage in Merida Through Structured Light Scanning

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a 3D virtual reconstruction of a reused piece with two surfaces (shield and columns) and a plaque of the city of Merida using a structured light scanner from a theoretical and practical perspective.
Abstract: Technological advancements have a great impact on the dissemination and understanding of the cultural heritage reality due to innovative techniques. These innovations are based on high-precision and high-resolution technologies that allow for the geometric documentation of any object within the fields of history and the arts. Through these techniques, new proposals may be studied and objects can be placed in any historical context. Three-dimensional (3D) digitization allows one to obtain a digital 3D model, which can be handled virtually and recreated at any historical period, enabling the conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage. Society currently demands new visualization techniques that allow interacting with architectural and artistic heritage, which have been applied in numerous virtual reconstructions of historical sites or singular archaeological pieces. This project allowed us to geometrically document a reused piece with two surfaces (shield and columns) and a plaque of the city of Merida using a structured light scanner from a theoretical-practical perspective. The 3D virtual reconstruction of the pieces was accomplished within this study. The generation of QR codes enabled the interactive display of the heritage pieces. Likewise, a proposal was made to reuse the aforementioned pieces through virtual archaeology. The initial hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a Visigothic niche as an original form. This research reports significant advances in the conservation and exploitation of cultural heritage.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a 3D model of the Baker's domus and its display by decoding QR code is presented to facilitate the conservation of existing Andalusian Archaeological heritage.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors focused on the virtual reconstruction of the Baker's House in the archaeological site of Torreparedones (Córdoba, Spain) using the historical-archaeological evidence scale and the elaboration of a typological rank.
Abstract: Abstract Over the years, the methodologies used for graphic representation in archaeology have evolved. The substantial change in representation was achieved with the use of computer software. Currently, 3D sketch scanning and photogrammetry are predominating tools used in this field. A new methodology, i.e., the use of the historical-archaeological evidence level scale, has entered this discipline to show the veracity of archaeological studies, as well as that of the vestiges found. The present study is focused on the virtual reconstruction of the ‘Baker’s House’ in the archaeological site of Torreparedones (Córdoba, Spain). The main aim of this study was to show and identify the veracity of the obtained reconstruction, through the use of the historical-archaeological evidence scale and the elaboration of a typological rank. The methodology used shows the evidence level employed by experts in the creation of virtual representations. The dissemination of the proposed historical-archaeological evidence scale entails the graphical identification of the veracity of reconstructions in this type of representations, always complying with the scientific quality criteria established by the Seville Letter.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2022-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article , the authors combined three different analysis modalities to provide a singular, analytical map of the artwork and applied reflectance spectrophotometry to obtain color information of the surface paint of the sample.
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is a well-recognised tool for the analysis of materials in canvas paintings. However, it can be difficult to interpret the peaks of the spectra without the additional context of the artwork such as the age, provenance, or colour. Reflectance spectrophotometry can be used to capture the colour of pigments, dyes, and lacquers, but is seldom used to complement Raman data. Additionally, reflectance spectrophotometry results can be influenced by the surface profile of the painting. To overcome these limitations, this work brings together three different analysis modalities to provide a singular, analytical map of the artwork. Raman spectroscopy was used to conduct the chemical identification of pigments, binding media, and varnish present in a synthetic painting sample. Reflectance spectrophotometry was applied to obtain colour information of the surface paint of the sample. Three-dimensional optical profilometry data was used to characterise the micro topology of the paint surface. These three data sets were spatially matched allowing the recorded spectroscopic data to be displayed with the corresponding colour and surface topography across the paint surface.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a método de escaneo basado on the use of espejos is proposed, and a procedimiento of escaneó a través de cristal for artefactos that no resulta recomendable extraer de la vitrina de exposición.
Abstract: La digitalización mediante escáner de luz estructurada ha demostrado su utilidad para la conservación-restauración de colecciones de modelos anatómicos didácticos. No obstante, existen múltiples circunstancias en las que las tareas de escaneo se ven seriamente dificultadas o dan lugar a resultados poco satisfactorios. El objetivo de este trabajo fue diseñar nuevas estrategias para lograr una correcta digitalización en algunas de estas situaciones. Para registrar áreas ocultas o inaccesibles de una escultura se ha ensayado un método de escaneo basado en el uso de espejos. También se propone un procedimiento de escaneo a través de cristal para artefactos que no resulta recomendable extraer de la vitrina de exposición. Finalmente, para figuras excesivamente brillantes se ha analizado la utilidad de una nueva función de escaneado usando fotografías polarizadas. A la vista de los resultados obtenidos, los métodos analizados podrían considerarse una opción válida para la digitalización de este tipo de figuras.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a digital reconstruction of the baptismal font of the Church of Santiago Apóstol de Montilla in Córdoba, Spain has been carried out.
Abstract: Abstract Stone is a characteristic element in the construction of buildings and monuments in the Middle Ages in Spain. This is so mainly due to its durability and, in baptismal fonts, specifically, its symbolism: Jesus Christ is the cornerstone, he comes to save us and is the foundation of the life of the Christian and of the Universal Church. The application of virtual 3D reconstruction is essential in the conservation of this type of heritage, together with scientific techniques and methods, and the analysis of historical-graphic documentation. Focusing on these three aspects, the baptismal font of the church of Santiago Apóstol de Montilla will be taken as a reference. The baptismal font of the church of Santiago Apóstol in Montilla (Córdoba, Spain), whose exact origin is unknown, is one of the most important heritage assets. San Francisco Solano, known as the “Thaumaturge of the New World”, was baptised in it. For over four centuries, the temple has been the Main Church of the head of the Marquisate of Priego. This study aims to know, document and carry out a digital reconstruction of an important piece of the monumental heritage of the Catholic Church: the baptismal font of the church of Santiago Apóstol in Montilla. To this end, we searched a major literature review focused on the use of photogrammetry for reading old graphics and deciphering texts. After that we analysed the graphic documentation derived from the restoration process conducted by Cordovan restorer Vázquez Arjona in the late twentieth century. The application of 3D digitisation and documentation techniques has allowed not only to analyse this important heritage element in detail through a virtual reconstruction, but also to make a far-reaching discovery regarding one of its elements, the unknown inserted inscription in the baptismal font band.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Fausto Bernardini1, Holly Rushmeier1
TL;DR: There is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse as cultural heritage and retail sales that will allow people to view realistic 3D objects on home computers.
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems are rapidly becoming more affordable, especially systems based on commodity electronic cameras. At the same time, personal computers with graphics hardware capable of displaying complex 3D models are also becoming inexpensive enough to be available to a large population. As a result, there is potentially an opportunity to consider new virtual reality applications as diverse as cultural heritage and retail sales that will allow people to view realistic 3D objects on home computers. Although there are many physical techniques for acquiring 3D data—including laser scanners, structured light and time-of-flight—there is a basic pipeline of operations for taking the acquired data and producing a usable numerical model. We look at the fundamental problems of range image registration, line-of-sight errors, mesh integration, surface detail and color, and texture mapping. In the area of registration we consider both the problems of finding an initial global alignment using manual and automatic means, and refining this alignment with variations of the Iterative Closest Point methods. To account for scanner line-of-sight errors we compare several averaging approaches. In the area of mesh integration, that is finding a single mesh joining the data from all scans, we compare various methods for computing interpolating and approximating surfaces. We then look at various ways in which surface properties such as color (more properly, spectral reflectance) can be extracted from acquired imagery. Finally, we examine techniques for producing a final model representation that can be efficiently rendered using graphics hardware.

492 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article surveys the state-of-the-art in augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality systems as a whole and from a cultural heritage perspective and identifies specific application areas in digital cultural heritage and makes suggestions as to which technology is most appropriate in each case.
Abstract: A multimedia approach to the diffusion, communication, and exploitation of Cultural Heritage (CH) is a well-established trend worldwide. Several studies demonstrate that the use of new and combined media enhances how culture is experienced. The benefit is in terms of both number of people who can have access to knowledge and the quality of the diffusion of the knowledge itself. In this regard, CH uses augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality technologies for different purposes, including education, exhibition enhancement, exploration, reconstruction, and virtual museums. These technologies enable user-centred presentation and make cultural heritage digitally accessible, especially when physical access is constrained. A number of surveys of these emerging technologies have been conducted; however, they are either not domain specific or lack a holistic perspective in that they do not cover all the aspects of the technology. A review of these technologies from a cultural heritage perspective is therefore warranted. Accordingly, our article surveys the state-of-the-art in augmented-, virtual-, and mixed-reality systems as a whole and from a cultural heritage perspective. In addition, we identify specific application areas in digital cultural heritage and make suggestions as to which technology is most appropriate in each case. Finally, the article predicts future research directions for augmented and virtual reality, with a particular focus on interaction interfaces and explores the implications for the cultural heritage domain.

473 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2011
TL;DR: This paper analyzes the errors caused by global illumination in structured light-based shape recovery and designs structured light patterns that are resilient to individual global illumination effects using simple logical operations and tools from combinatorial mathematics.
Abstract: Global illumination effects such as inter-reflections, diffusion and sub-surface scattering severely degrade the performance of structured light-based 3D scanning. In this paper, we analyze the errors caused by global illumination in structured light-based shape recovery. Based on this analysis, we design structured light patterns that are resilient to individual global illumination effects using simple logical operations and tools from combinatorial mathematics. Scenes exhibiting multiple phenomena are handled by combining results from a small ensemble of such patterns. This combination also allows us to detect any residual errors that are corrected by acquiring a few additional images. Our techniques do not require explicit separation of the direct and global components of scene radiance and hence work even in scenarios where the separation fails or the direct component is too low. Our methods can be readily incorporated into existing scanning systems without significant overhead in terms of capture time or hardware. We show results on a variety of scenes with complex shape and material properties and challenging global illumination effects.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A trial application of a structuredlight scanner is reported here on, to create 3D representations of excavated surfaces and associated artifacts at two Middle Paleolithic sites in southwest France, which are very good representations of the originals in terms of colors and spatial details.

99 citations