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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STR.2020.11.004

Dimeric Structure of the Pseudokinase IRAK3 Suggests an Allosteric Mechanism for Negative Regulation

04 Mar 2021-Structure (Elsevier)-Vol. 29, Iss: 3, pp 238
Abstract: Summary Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinases (IRAKs) are key players in innate immune signaling that mediate the host response to pathogens. In contrast to the active kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4, IRAK2 and IRAK3 are pseudokinases lacking catalytic activity and their functions are poorly understood. IRAK3 is thought to be a negative regulator of innate immune signaling and mutations in IRAK3 are associated with asthma and cancer. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human IRAK3 pseudokinase domain in a closed, pseudoactive conformation. IRAK3 dimerizes in a unique way through a head-to-head arrangement not observed in any other kinases. Multiple conserved cysteine residues imply a potential redox control of IRAK3 conformation and dimerization. By analyzing asthma-associated mutations, we identify an evolutionarily conserved surface on IRAK3 that could form an interaction interface with IRAK4, suggesting a model for the negative regulation of IRAK4 by IRAK3.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JBC.2021.100705
Abstract: Protein kinases are present in all domains of life and play diverse roles in cellular signaling. Whereas the impact of substrate phosphorylation by protein kinases has long been appreciated, it is becoming increasingly clear that protein kinases also play other, noncatalytic, functions. Here, we review recent developments in understanding the noncatalytic functions of protein kinases. Many noncatalytic activities are best exemplified by protein kinases that are devoid of enzymatic activity altogether—known as pseudokinases. These dead proteins illustrate that, beyond conventional notions of kinase function, catalytic activity can be dispensable for biological function. Through key examples we illustrate diverse mechanisms of noncatalytic kinase activity: as allosteric modulators; protein-based switches; scaffolds for complex assembly; and as competitive inhibitors in signaling pathways. In common, these noncatalytic mechanisms exploit the nature of the protein kinase fold as a versatile protein–protein interaction module. Many examples are also intrinsically linked to the ability of the protein kinase to switch between multiple states, a function shared with catalytic protein kinases. Finally, we consider the contemporary landscape of small molecules to modulate noncatalytic functions of protein kinases, which, although challenging, has significant potential given the scope of noncatalytic protein kinase function in health and disease.

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Topics: Kinase activity (60%), Protein kinase A (57%), Janus kinase (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21191-7
Abstract: The life cycle of Baculoviridae family insect viruses depends on the viral protein kinase, PK-1, to phosphorylate the regulatory protein, p6.9, to induce baculoviral genome release. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cydia pomenella granulovirus PK-1, which, owing to its likely ancestral origin among host cell AGC kinases, exhibits a eukaryotic protein kinase fold. PK-1 occurs as a rigid dimer, where an antiparallel arrangement of the αC helices at the dimer core stabilizes PK-1 in a closed, active conformation. Dimerization is facilitated by C-lobe:C-lobe and N-lobe:N-lobe interactions between protomers, including the domain-swapping of an N-terminal helix that crowns a contiguous β-sheet formed by the two N-lobes. PK-1 retains a dimeric conformation in solution, which is crucial for catalytic activity. Our studies raise the prospect that parallel, side-to-side dimeric arrangements that lock kinase domains in a catalytically-active conformation could function more broadly as a regulatory mechanism among eukaryotic protein kinases.

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Topics: Kinase activity (60%), Protein structure (54%), Protein kinase A (53%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STR.2021.01.011
04 Mar 2021-Structure
Abstract: In this issue of Structure, Lange et al. (2020) report the structure of the pseudokinase domain of IRAK3, a negative regulator of Myddosome inflammatory signaling. The IRAK3 pseudokinase domain forms a head-to-head dimer, suggesting a new mode of kinase/pseudokinase allostery by which IRAK3 could attenuate the activity of IRAK4 in cells.

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1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.02.12.430923
Vivek Modi1, Roland L. Dunbrack1Institutions (1)
13 Feb 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Protein kinases exhibit significant structural diversity, primarily in the conformation of the activation loop and adjacent components of the active site. We previously performed a clustering of the conformation of the activation loop of all protein kinase structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) (Modi and Dunbrack, PNAS, 116:6818-6827, 2019) into 8 classes based on the location of the Phe side chain of the DFG motif at the N- terminus of the activation loop. This is determined with a distance metric that measures the difference in the dihedral angles that determine the placement of the Phe side chains (the φ,ψ of X, D, and F of the X-DFG motif and the χ1 of the Phe side chain). The nomenclature is based on the regions of the Ramachandran map occupied by the XDF residues and the χ1 rotamer of the Phe residue. All active structures are "BLAminus", while the most common inactive DFGin conformations are "BLBplus" and "ABAminus." Type 2 inhibitors bind almost exclusively to the DFGout "BBAminus" conformation. In this paper, we present Kincore (http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/kincore), a web resource providing access to the conformational assignments based on our clustering along with labels for ligand types (Type 1, Type 2, etc.) bound to each kinase chain in the PDB. The data are annotated with several properties including PDBid, Uniprotid, gene, protein name, phylogenetic group, spatial and dihedral labels for orientation of DFGmotif residues, C-helix disposition, ligand name and type. The user can browse and query the database using these attributes individually or perform advanced search using a combination of them like a phylogenetic group with specific conformational label and ligand type. The user can also upload a structure and determine its spatial and dihedral labels using the web server and or use a freely available standalone program. The entire database can be downloaded as text files and structure files in PyMOL sessions and mmCIF format. We believe that Kincore will help in understanding conformational dynamics of these proteins and guide development of inhibitors targeting specific states.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKAB920
Vivek Modi1, Roland L. Dunbrack1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The active form of kinases is shared across different family members, as are several commonly observed inactive forms. We previously performed a clustering of the conformation of the activation loop of all protein kinase structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) into eight classes based on the dihedral angles that place the Phe side chain of the DFG motif at the N-terminus of the activation loop. Our clusters are strongly associated with the placement of the activation loop, the C-helix, and other structural elements of kinases. We present Kincore, a web resource providing access to our conformational assignments for kinase structures in the PDB. While other available databases provide conformational states or drug type but not both, KinCore includes the conformational state and the inhibitor type (Type 1, 1.5, 2, 3, allosteric) for each kinase chain. The user can query and browse the database using these attributes or determine the conformational labels of a kinase structure using the web server or a standalone program. The database and labeled structure files can be downloaded from the server. Kincore will help in understanding the conformational dynamics of these proteins and guide development of inhibitors targeting specific states. Kincore is available at http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/kincore.

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1 Citations

References
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107 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444910007493
Abstract: Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Furthermore, tools are provided for model validation as well as interfaces to external programs for refinement, validation and graphics. The software is designed to be easy to learn for novice users, which is achieved by ensuring that tools for common tasks are `discoverable' through familiar user-interface elements (menus and toolbars) or by intuitive behaviour (mouse controls). Recent developments have focused on providing tools for expert users, with customisable key bindings, extensions and an extensive scripting interface. The software is under rapid development, but has already achieved very widespread use within the crystallographic community. The current state of the software is presented, with a description of the facilities available and of some of the underlying methods employed.

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Topics: Software design (52%), Scripting language (51%), Software (50%)

17,770 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GR.849004
01 Jun 2004-Genome Research
Abstract: WebLogo generates sequence logos, graphical representations of the patterns within a multiple sequence alignment. Sequence logos provide a richer and more precise description of sequence similarity than consensus sequences and can rapidly reveal significant features of the alignment otherwise difficult to perceive. Each logo consists of stacks of letters, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of each stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position (measured in bits), whereas the height of symbols within the stack reflects the relative frequency of the corresponding amino or nucleic acid at that position. WebLogo has been enhanced recently with additional features and options, to provide a convenient and highly configurable sequence logo generator. A command line interface and the complete, open WebLogo source code are available for local installation and customization.

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Topics: Sequence logo (71%), Multiple sequence alignment (56%), Sequence (medicine) (54%) ... show more

9,230 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1075762
Gerard Manning1, David Whyte1, Ricardo Martinez1, Tony Hunter2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
06 Dec 2002-Science
Abstract: We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.

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Topics: Kinome (62%), Kinase binding (61%), Pseudogene (59%) ... show more

6,993 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP033
01 May 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Summary: Jalview Version 2 is a system for interactive WYSIWYG editing, analysis and annotation of multiple sequence alignments. Core features include keyboard and mouse-based editing, multiple views and alignment overviews, and linked structure display with Jmol. Jalview 2 is available in two forms: a lightweight Java applet for use in web applications, and a powerful desktop application that employs web services for sequence alignment, secondary structure prediction and the retrieval of alignments, sequences, annotation and structures from public databases and any DAS 1.53 compliant sequence or annotation server. Availability: The Jalview 2 Desktop application and JalviewLite applet are made freely available under the GPL, and can be downloaded from www.jalview.org Contact: g.j.barton@dundee.ac.uk

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6,416 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.181342398
Nathan A. Baker1, David Sept2, Simpson Joseph1, Michael Holst1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Evaluation of the electrostatic properties of biomolecules has become a standard practice in molecular biophysics. Foremost among the models used to elucidate the electrostatic potential is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation; however, existing methods for solving this equation have limited the scope of accurate electrostatic calculations to relatively small biomolecular systems. Here we present the application of numerical methods to enable the trivially parallel solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for supramolecular structures that are orders of magnitude larger in size. As a demonstration of this methodology, electrostatic potentials have been calculated for large microtubule and ribosome structures. The results point to the likely role of electrostatics in a variety of activities of these structures.

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Topics: Electrostatics (52%)

6,413 Citations