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Book ChapterDOI

Direct synthesis of heterocycles via MCRs, using a name reaction

01 Jan 2020-pp 15-138
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight synthesis of heterocycles using one-pot and multicomponent reactions through a name reaction, which can be considered as an important development in the rational drug design in terms of rapid and unambiguous identification and optimization of biologically active lead compounds.
Abstract: Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) convert more than two molecules straightly to the expected products. Remarkably, a name reaction is a chemical reaction, which has reached to such status from different points of view, being named after its discoverers or developers. Among the tens of thousands of organic reactions that are known, hundreds of such reactions are well-known enough to be named after people. As organic chemistry developed during the 20th century, chemists started associating synthetically useful reactions with the names of the discoverers or developers; in many cases, the name is merely a mnemonic. Since MCRs are one-pot reactions, expectedly, they can be conducted much easier than multistep reactions. Combined, with high-throughput library screening, this protocol can be considered as an important development in the rational drug design in the terms of rapid and unambiguous identification and optimization of biologically active lead compounds. There are several important name reactions in organic chemistry. Among the tens of thousands of organic reactions that are known, hundreds of such reactions have reached such status to be named after its discoverers or developer. Well-known examples include the Biginelli reaction, Hantzsch reaction, Click reaction, Gewald reaction, Ugi reaction, Ugi-azide reaction. Due to importance of name reactions in synthesis of heterocycles, in this chapter, we try to highlight synthesis of heterocycles using one-pot and multicomponent reactions through a name reaction.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a set of powerful, highly reliable, and selective reactions for the rapid synthesis of useful new compounds and combinatorial libraries through heteroatom links (C-X-C), an approach called click chemistry is defined, enabled, and constrained by a handful of nearly perfect "springloaded" reactions.
Abstract: Examination of nature's favorite molecules reveals a striking preference for making carbon-heteroatom bonds over carbon-carbon bonds-surely no surprise given that carbon dioxide is nature's starting material and that most reactions are performed in water. Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are condensation polymers of small subunits stitched together by carbon-heteroatom bonds. Even the 35 or so building blocks from which these crucial molecules are made each contain, at most, six contiguous C-C bonds, except for the three aromatic amino acids. Taking our cue from nature's approach, we address here the development of a set of powerful, highly reliable, and selective reactions for the rapid synthesis of useful new compounds and combinatorial libraries through heteroatom links (C-X-C), an approach we call "click chemistry". Click chemistry is at once defined, enabled, and constrained by a handful of nearly perfect "spring-loaded" reactions. The stringent criteria for a process to earn click chemistry status are described along with examples of the molecular frameworks that are easily made using this spartan, but powerful, synthetic strategy.

9,069 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel regiospecific copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes to azides on solid-phase is reported, and the X-ray structure of 2-azido-2-methylpropanoic acid has been solved, to yield structural information on the 1, 3-dipoles entering the reaction.
Abstract: The cycloaddition of azides to alkynes is one of the most important synthetic routes to 1H-[1,2,3]-triazoles. Here a novel regiospecific copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes to azides on solid-phase is reported. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl azides, aryl azides, and an azido sugar were used successfully in the copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition producing diversely 1,4-substituted [1,2,3]-triazoles in peptide backbones or side chains. The reaction conditions were fully compatible with solid-phase peptide synthesis on polar supports. The copper(I) catalysis is mild and efficient (>95% conversion and purity in most cases) and furthermore, the X-ray structure of 2-azido-2-methylpropanoic acid has been solved, to yield structural information on the 1,3-dipoles entering the reaction. Novel Fmoc-protected amino azides derived from Fmoc-amino alcohols were prepared by the Mitsunobu reaction.

7,397 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MCRs and especially MCRs with isocyanides offer many opportunities to attain new reactions and basic structures, however, this requires that the chemist learns the "language" of M CRs, something that this review wishes to stimulate.
Abstract: Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are fundamentally different from two-component reactions in several aspects. Among the MCRs, those with isocyanides have developed into popular organic-chemical reactions in the pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of compound libraries of low-molecular druglike compounds. With a small set of starting materials, very large libraries can be built up within a short time, which can then be used for research on medicinal substances. Due to the intensive research of the last few years, many new backbone types have become accessible. MCRs are also increasingly being employed in the total synthesis of natural products. MCRs and especially MCRs with isocyanides offer many opportunities to attain new reactions and basic structures. However, this requires that the chemist learns the “language” of MCRs, something that this review wishes to stimulate.

3,619 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: ChEMBL is an Open Data database containing binding, functional and ADMET information for a large number of drug-like bioactive compounds to maximize their quality and utility across a wide range of chemical biology and drug-discovery research problems.
Abstract: ChEMBL is an Open Data database containing binding, functional and ADMET information for a large number of drug-like bioactive compounds. These data are manually abstracted from the primary published literature on a regular basis, then further curated and standardized to maximize their quality and utility across a wide range of chemical biology and drug-discovery research problems. Currently, the database contains 5.4 million bioactivity measurements for more than 1 million compounds and 5200 protein targets. Access is available through a web-based interface, data downloads and web services at: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembldb.

2,956 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The copper-(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation from azides and terminal acetylenes is a particularly powerful linking reaction, due to its high degree of dependability, complete specificity, and the bio-compatibility of the reactants.

2,882 citations