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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2021102118

Discovery and characterization of bromodomain 2-specific inhibitors of BRDT.

02 Mar 2021-Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)-Vol. 118, Iss: 9
Abstract: Bromodomain testis (BRDT), a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) subfamily that includes the cancer targets BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4, is a validated contraceptive target. All BET subfamily members have two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2). Knockout mice lacking BRDT-BD1 or both bromodomains are infertile. Treatment of mice with JQ1, a BET BD1/BD2 nonselective inhibitor with the highest affinity for BRD4, disrupts spermatogenesis and reduces sperm number and motility. To assess the contribution of each BRDT bromodomain, we screened our collection of DNA-encoded chemical libraries for BRDT-BD1 and BRDT-BD2 binders. High-enrichment hits were identified and resynthesized off-DNA and examined for their ability to compete with JQ1 in BRDT and BRD4 bromodomain AlphaScreen assays. These studies identified CDD-1102 as a selective BRDT-BD2 inhibitor with low nanomolar potency and >1,000-fold selectivity over BRDT-BD1. Structure-activity relationship studies of CDD-1102 produced a series of additional BRDT-BD2/BRD4-BD2 selective inhibitors, including CDD-1302, a truncated analog of CDD-1102 with similar activity, and CDD-1349, an analog with sixfold selectivity for BRDT-BD2 versus BRD4-BD2. BROMOscan bromodomain profiling confirmed the great affinity and selectivity of CDD-1102 and CDD-1302 on all BET BD2 versus BD1 with the highest affinity for BRDT-BD2. Cocrystals of BRDT-BD2 with CDD-1102 and CDD-1302 were determined at 2.27 and 1.90 A resolution, respectively, and revealed BRDT-BD2 specific contacts that explain the high affinity and selectivity of these compounds. These BD2-specific compounds and their binding to BRDT-BD2 are unique compared with recent reports and enable further evaluation of their nonhormonal contraceptive potential in vitro and in vivo.

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Topics: Bromodomain (60%), BRD4 (55%)
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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JMEDCHEM.1C00412
Abstract: Second-generation bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) inhibitors, which selectively target one of the two bromodomains in the BET proteins, have begun to emerge in the literature. These inhibitors aim to help determine the roles and functions of each domain and assess whether they can demonstrate an improved safety profile in clinical settings compared to pan-BET inhibitors. Herein, we describe the discovery of a novel BET BD2-selective chemotype using a structure-based drug design from a hit identified by DNA-encoded library technologies, showing a structural differentiation from key previously reported greater than 100-fold BD2-selective chemotypes GSK620, GSK046, and ABBV-744. Following a structure-based hypothesis for the selectivity and optimization of the physicochemical properties of the series, we identified 60 (GSK040), an in vitro ready and in vivo capable BET BD2-inhibitor of unprecedented selectivity (5000-fold) against BET BD1, excellent selectivity against other bromodomains, and good physicochemical properties. This novel chemical probe can be added to the toolbox used in the advancement of epigenetics research.

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Topics: Bromodomain (52%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ORGLETT.1C00924
28 Apr 2021-Organic Letters
Abstract: A highly efficient approach to C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond construction via on-DNA photoredox catalysis between on-DNA alkenes and N-aryl tertiary amines was developed. The methodology demonstrated 55%-95% conversions without obvious DNA damage, as seen by qPCR tests. Furthermore, various functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and aryl halides, that can be used to create library diversities were shown to be tolerant of the C-H activation conditions.

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Topics: Photoredox catalysis (63%), Aryl (55%), Catalysis (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17460441.2021.1969359
Gong Zhang1, Juan Zhang1, Yuting Gao1, Yangfeng Li1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Introduction Undruggable targets refer to clinically meaningful therapeutic targets that are 'difficult to drug' or 'yet to be drugged' via traditional approaches. Featuring characteristics of lacking defined ligand-binding pockets, non-catalytic protein-protein interaction functional modes and less-investigated 3D structures, these undruggable targets have been targeted with novel therapeutic entities developed with the progress of unconventional drug discovery approaches, such as targeted degradation molecules and display technologies. Area covered This review first presents the concept of 'undruggable' exemplified by RAS and other targets. Next, detailed strategies are illustrated in two aspects: innovation of therapeutic entities and development of unconventional drug discovery technologies. Finally, case studies covering typical undruggable targets (Bcl-2, p53, and RAS) are depicted to further demonstrate the feasibility of the strategies and entities above. Expert opinion Targeting the undruggable expands the scope of therapeutically reachable targets. Consequently, it represents the drug discovery frontier. Biomedical studies are capable of dissecting disease mechanisms, thus broadening the list of undruggable targets. Encouraged by the recent approval of the KRAS inhibitor Sotorasib, we believe that merging multiple discovery approaches and exploiting various novel therapeutic entities would pave the way for dealing with more 'undruggable' targets in the future.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BMC.2021.116328
Yu Zhou1, Wenyin Shen1, Jianzhao Peng1, Yuqing Deng1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: DNA-encoded chemical library (DEL) has emerged to be a powerful ligand screening technology in drug discovery. Recently, we reported a DNA-encoded dynamic library (DEDL) approach that combines the principle of traditional dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) with DEL. DEDL has shown excellent potential in fragment-based ligand discovery with a variety of protein targets. Here, we further tested the utility of DEDL in identifying low molecular weight fragments that are selective for different isoforms or domains of the same protein family. A 10,000-member DEDL was selected against sirtuin-1, 2, and 5 (SIRT1, 2, 5) and the BD1 and BD2 domains of bromodomain 4 (BRD4), respectively. Albeit with modest potency, a series of isoform/domain-selective fragments were identified and the corresponding inhibitors were derived by fragment linking.

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Topics: Chemical library (56%), Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (53%), Drug discovery (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2111172118
Srinivas Chamakuri1, Shuo Lu1, Melek N. Ucisik1, Kurt M. Bohren1  +21 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has killed more than 4 million humans globally, but there is no bona fide Food and Drug Administration-approved drug-like molecule to impede the COVID-19 pandemic. The sluggish pace of traditional therapeutic discovery is poorly suited to producing targeted treatments against rapidly evolving viruses. Here, we used an affinity-based screen of 4 billion DNA-encoded molecules en masse to identify a potent class of virus-specific inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) without extensive and time-consuming medicinal chemistry. CDD-1714, the initial three-building-block screening hit (molecular weight [MW] = 542.5 g/mol), was a potent inhibitor (inhibition constant [K i] = 20 nM). CDD-1713, a smaller two-building-block analog (MW = 353.3 g/mol) of CDD-1714, is a reversible covalent inhibitor of Mpro (K i = 45 nM) that binds in the protease pocket, has specificity over human proteases, and shows in vitro efficacy in a SARS-CoV-2 infectivity model. Subsequently, key regions of CDD-1713 that were necessary for inhibitory activity were identified and a potent (K i = 37 nM), smaller (MW = 323.4 g/mol), and metabolically more stable analog (CDD-1976) was generated. Thus, screening of DNA-encoded chemical libraries can accelerate the discovery of efficacious drug-like inhibitors of emerging viral disease targets.

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Topics: Protease (51%)

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32 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09504
Panagis Filippakopoulos1, Jun Qi2, Sarah Picaud1, Yao Shen3  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
23 Dec 2010-Nature
Abstract: Epigenetic proteins are intently pursued targets in ligand discovery. So far, successful efforts have been limited to chromatin modifying enzymes, or so-called epigenetic 'writers' and 'erasers'. Potent inhibitors of histone binding modules have not yet been described. Here we report a cell-permeable small molecule (JQ1) that binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition motifs, or bromodomains. High potency and specificity towards a subset of human bromodomains is explained by co-crystal structures with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member BRD4, revealing excellent shape complementarity with the acetyl-lysine binding cavity. Recurrent translocation of BRD4 is observed in a genetically-defined, incurable subtype of human squamous carcinoma. Competitive binding by JQ1 displaces the BRD4 fusion oncoprotein from chromatin, prompting squamous differentiation and specific antiproliferative effects in BRD4-dependent cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models. These data establish proof-of-concept for targeting protein-protein interactions of epigenetic 'readers', and provide a versatile chemical scaffold for the development of chemical probes more broadly throughout the bromodomain family.

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Topics: BET inhibitor (59%), Bromodomain (59%), Squamous carcinoma (57%) ... read more

2,991 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2012.02.013
Panagis Filippakopoulos1, Sarah Picaud1, Maria M. Mangos1, T. Keates1  +12 moreInstitutions (6)
30 Mar 2012-Cell
Abstract: Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein interaction modules that specifically recognize e-N-lysine acetylation motifs, a key event in the reading process of epigenetic marks. The 61 BRDs in the human genome cluster into eight families based on structure/sequence similarity. Here, we present 29 high-resolution crystal structures, covering all BRD families. Comprehensive crossfamily structural analysis identifies conserved and family-specific structural features that are necessary for specific acetylation-dependent substrate recognition. Screening of more than 30 representative BRDs against systematic histone-peptide arrays identifies new BRD substrates and reveals a strong influence of flanking posttranslational modifications, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, suggesting that BRDs recognize combinations of marks rather than singly acetylated sequences. We further uncovered a structural mechanism for the simultaneous binding and recognition of diverse diacetyl-containing peptides by BRD4. These data provide a foundation for structure-based drug design of specific inhibitors for this emerging target family.

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Topics: Bromodomain (54%)

1,120 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1602/NEURORX.2.4.541
01 Oct 2005-Neurorx
Abstract: Fundamental physiochemical features of CNS drugs are related to their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier affinity and exhibit CNS activity. Factors relevant to the success of CNS drugs are reviewed. CNS drugs show values of molecular weight, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor that in general have a smaller range than general therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic properties can be manipulated by the medicinal chemist to a significant extent. The solubility, permeability, metabolic stability, protein binding, and human ether-ago-go-related gene inhibition of CNS compounds need to be optimized simultaneously with potency, selectivity, and other biological parameters. The balance between optimizing the physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties to make the best compromises in properties is critical for designing new drugs likely to penetrate the blood brain barrier and affect relevant biological systems. This review is intended as a guide to designing CNS therapeutic agents with better drug-like properties.

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904 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1124/PR.110.002790
C. Yan Cheng1, Dolores D. Mruk1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and the apical (adluminal) compartments. Meiosis I and II, spermiogenesis, and spermiation all take place in a specialized microenvironment behind the BTB in the apical compartment, but spermatogonial renewal and differentiation and cell cycle progression up to the preleptotene spermatocyte stage take place outside of the BTB in the basal compartment of the epithelium. However, the BTB is not a static ultrastructure. Instead, it undergoes extensive restructuring during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis at stage VIII to allow the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at the BTB. Yet the immunological barrier conferred by the BTB cannot be compromised, even transiently, during the epithelial cycle to avoid the production of antibodies against meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. Studies have demonstrated that some unlikely partners, namely adhesion protein complexes (e.g., occludin-ZO-1, N-cadherin-β-catenin, claudin-5-ZO-1), steroids (e.g., testosterone, estradiol-17β), nonreceptor protein kinases (e.g., focal adhesion kinase, c-Src, c-Yes), polarity proteins (e.g., PAR6, Cdc42, 14-3-3), endocytic vesicle proteins (e.g., clathrin, caveolin, dynamin 2), and actin regulatory proteins (e.g., Eps8, Arp2/3 complex), are working together, apparently under the overall influence of cytokines (e.g., transforming growth factor-β3, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α). In short, a “new” BTB is created behind spermatocytes in transit while the “old” BTB above transiting cells undergoes timely degeneration, so that the immunological barrier can be maintained while spermatocytes are traversing the BTB. We also discuss recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms by which environmental toxicants (e.g., cadmium, bisphenol A) induce testicular injury via their initial actions at the BTB to elicit subsequent damage to germ-cell adhesion, thereby leading to germ-cell loss, reduced sperm count, and male infertility or subfertility. Moreover, we also critically evaluate findings in the field regarding studies on drug transporters in the testis and discuss how these influx and efflux pumps regulate the entry of potential nonhormonal male contraceptives to the apical compartment to exert their effects. Collectively, these findings illustrate multiple potential targets are present at the BTB for innovative contraceptive development and for better delivery of drugs to alleviate toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction in men.

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Topics: Spermatogenesis (53%), Endocytic vesicle (53%), Blood–testis barrier (52%) ... read more

523 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EMBOJ/19.22.6141
David J. Owen1, Prisca Ornaghi2, Ji-Chun Yang1, Nicholas Lowe1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
15 Nov 2000-The EMBO Journal
Abstract: The bromodomain is an approximately 110 amino acid module found in histone acetyltransferases and the ATPase component of certain nucleosome remodelling complexes. We report the crystal structure at 1.9 A resolution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn5p bromodomain complexed with a peptide corresponding to residues 15-29 of histone H4 acetylated at the zeta-N of lysine 16. We show that this bromodomain preferentially binds to peptides containing an N:-acetyl lysine residue. Only residues 16-19 of the acetylated peptide interact with the bromodomain. The primary interaction is the N:-acetyl lysine binding in a cleft with the specificity provided by the interaction of the amide nitrogen of a conserved asparagine with the oxygen of the acetyl carbonyl group. A network of water-mediated H-bonds with protein main chain carbonyl groups at the base of the cleft contributes to the binding. Additional side chain binding occurs on a shallow depression that is hydrophobic at one end and can accommodate charge interactions at the other. These findings suggest that the Gcn5p bromodomain may discriminate between different acetylated lysine residues depending on the context in which they are displayed.

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Topics: Bromodomain (74%), Histone acetyltransferase (64%), Histone octamer (60%) ... read more

506 Citations


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