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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40615-021-00992-Y

Discrimination and Stress Among Asian Refugee Populations During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Bhutanese and Burmese Refugees in the USA.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities (Springer International Publishing)-pp 1-9
Abstract: To measure COVID-19 pandemic-related discrimination and stress among Bhutanese and Burmese refugees in the USA and to identify characteristics associated with these two measures. From 5/15–6/1/2020, Bhutanese and Burmese refugee community leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, online survey and shared the link with other community members who were English-proficient, ≥18 years old, and currently living in the USA. We identified characteristics associated with pandemic-related discrimination and stress applying ordinal logistic regression models. Among 218 refugees from 23 states, nearly one third of participants reported experiencing at least one type of discrimination, and more than two-thirds experienced at least one type of pandemic-related stress. Having had COVID-19, having a family member with COVID-19, and being an essential worker were associated with discrimination. Discrimination, financial crisis, and female gender were associated with stress. Reducing pandemic-related discrimination should remain a priority, as should the promotion of social support and coping strategies. Noting that this is a nonrepresentative sample, we recommend that larger national studies tracking experiences with pandemic-related discrimination and stress include Asian American subgroups with limited English proficiency.

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Topics: Refugee (53%)
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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1186/S12889-021-11820-7
Jihyun Jane Min1, Shinwoo Choi2, Hyejoon Park3Institutions (3)
27 Oct 2021-BMC Public Health
Abstract: Background While previous studies have examined the relationships between social support and health care accessibility among ethnic minority populations, studies on Korean Americans remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the relationship between Korean Americans' mental health, accessibility to health care, and how they perceive the level of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method/result We distributed online surveys to Korean Americans from May 24, 2020, to June 14, 2020, generating 790 responses from participants residing in 42 states. Binary Logistic and Ordinary Least Square regression analyses revealed that poor mental health was associated with language barriers inhibiting Korean Americans' access to COVID-19-related information. Their perceived social support from family members and close friends was positively associated with mental health. Conclusion Our findings recommend that equipping community health care services with translators or interpreters is necessary. Additionally, health practitioners and staff should be trained to utilize telehealth tools to effectively treat individuals with mental health problems. American policymakers and health care professionals need to understand and address the unique hardships Korean Americans experience amid COVID-19.

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Topics: Health care (65%), Public health (61%), Mental health (60%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJINTREL.2021.09.009
Gulsah Kurt1, Zeynep Ilkkursun1, A. Javanbakht2, Ersin Uygun  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: COVID-19 does not leave behind refugees. They are disproportionately affected during the current pandemic. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 related stressors -resource loss and perceived discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic- on Syrian refugees in Turkey. Further, the buffering role of perceived social support against the detrimental impacts of such stressors was examined. An online cross-sectional study was conducted between September-October 2020. A sample of 345 Syrian refugees in Turkey completed the questions about demographic characteristics, resource loss and perceived discrimination during the pandemic, perceived social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. A high level of depressive and anxiety symptoms was reported in our sample. Resource loss and perceived discrimination during the pandemic significantly and positively predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Perceived social support acted as a buffer against the detrimental effect of resource loss on mental health. For those with higher perceived social support, resource loss during the pandemic did not significantly predict depressive and anxiety symptoms. The results indicate the detrimental role of COVID-19 related stressors on refugee mental health. Social support is an important protective factor for mental health amidst the pandemic. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the precarious conditions of refugees in all COVID-19 responses and communications.

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Topics: Anxiety (54%), Social support (54%), Mental health (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40615-021-01108-2
Hyunsu Oh1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Purpose Using distinct measures for racial microaggressions and discrimination, this article explored the association between discriminatory experiences and self-reported health status among Asian populations in the USA and its subethnic group variation. Methods This article investigated 4393 Asian American adults from the 2016 Post-Election National Asian American Survey (NAAS). Binary measure of self-reported health (not good/good) was accounted for. Two measures of racial microaggressions included (1) verbal microaggression and (2) behavioral microaggression. Two measures of discrimination encompassed (1) workplace discrimination and (2) institutional racism. Ethic groups were classified to (1) East Asian (n=1491), (2) Southeast Asian (n=1758), or (3) South Asian (n=1144). Results Findings from logistic regression analyses showed that increased workplace discrimination and institutional racism yielded decreased odds of reporting good health status. The association between racial microaggressions, discrimination, and self-reported health status varied across ethnic subgroup, indicating that the verbal aggression score was more predictive for the East Asian group while institutional racism was most harmful to Southeast Asians. Discussion Findings highlighted the racialized interpretation and its variations in self-reported health status among Asian populations. Relating to variations in experiences of racialization and attainment of socioeconomic status, disproportionate relationships of discriminatory experiences and health among Asian populations were further discussed.

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Topics: Southeast asian (63%), Racialization (50%)


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.SEMVASCSURG.2021.08.002
Elizabeth Andraska1, Olamide Alabi2, Chelsea Dorsey3, Young Erben4  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is a pandemic with more than 32 million cases and more than 500,000 deaths nationwide. With the significant health consequences seen secondary to COVID-19, health care disparities have been further exacerbated. Mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the increased disparity seen during the COVID-19 pandemic are multifactorial. This review of the literature outlines the unique barriers to health and disparities that are associated with vulnerable communities who have been most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.

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Topics: Pandemic (56%), Health care (50%)

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37 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.2565
Yan Bai, Lingsheng Yao, Tao Wei, Fei Tian1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
14 Apr 2020-JAMA
Abstract: This study describes possible transmission of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from an asymptomatic Wuhan resident to 5 family members in Anyang, a Chinese city in the neighboring province of Hubei.

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Topics: Asymptomatic carrier (57%)

3,104 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/GPSYCH-2020-100213
Jianyin Qiu1, Bin Shen, Min Zhao1, Zhen Wang1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
06 Mar 2020-
Abstract: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic emerged in Wuhan, China, spread nationwide and then onto half a dozen other countries between December 2019 and early 2020. The implementation of unprecedented strict quarantine measures in China has kept a large number of people in isolation and affected many aspects of people's lives. It has also triggered a wide variety of psychological problems, such as panic disorder, anxiety and depression. This study is the first nationwide large-scale survey of psychological distress in the general population of China during the COVID-19 epidemic.

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Topics: Population (52%)

1,828 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Patrick W. Corrigan1, Amy C. WatsonInstitutions (1)
01 Feb 2002-World Psychiatry
Abstract: Many people with serious mental illness are challenged doubly. On one hand, they struggle with the symptoms and disabilities that result from the disease. On the other, they are challenged by the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about mental illness. As a result of both, people with mental illness are robbed of the opportunities that define a quality life: good jobs, safe housing, satisfactory health care, and affiliation with a diverse group of people. Although research has gone far to understand the impact of the disease, it has only recently begun to explain stigma in mental illness. Much work yet needs to be done to fully understand the breadth and scope of prejudice against people with mental illness. Fortunately, social psychologists and sociologists have been studying phenomena related to stigma in other minority groups for several decades. In this paper, we integrate research specific to mental illness stigma with the more general body of research on stereotypes and prejudice to provide a brief overview of issues in the area. The impact of stigma is twofold, as outlined in Table ​Table1.1. Public stigma is the reaction that the general population has to people with mental illness. Self-stigma is the prejudice which people with mental illness turn against themselves. Both public and self-stigma may be understood in terms of three components: stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Social psychologists view stereotypes as especially efficient, social knowledge structures that are learned by most members of a social group (1-3). Stereotypes are considered "social" because they represent collectively agreed upon notions of groups of persons. They are "efficient" because people can quickly generate impressions and expectations of individuals who belong to a stereotyped group (4). Table 1 Comparing and contrasting the definitions of public stigma and self-stigma The fact that most people have knowledge of a set of stereotypes does not imply that they agree with them (5). For example, many persons can recall stereotypes about different racial groups but do not agree that the stereotypes are valid. People who are prejudiced, on the other hand, endorse these negative stereotypes ("That's right; all persons with mental illness are violent!") and generate negative emotional reactions as a result ("They all scare me!") (1,3,6). In contrast to stereotypes, which are beliefs, prejudicial attitudes involve an evaluative (generally negative) component (7,8). Prejudice also yields emotional responses (e.g., anger or fear) to stigmatized groups. Prejudice, which is fundamentally a cognitive and affective response, leads to discrimination, the behavioral reaction (9). Prejudice that yields anger can lead to hostile behavior (e.g., physically harming a minority group) (10). In terms of mental illness, angry prejudice may lead to withholding help or replacing health care with services provided by the criminal justice system (11). Fear leads to avoidance; e.g., employers do not want persons with mental illness nearby so they do not hire them (12). Alternatively, prejudice turned inward leads to self-discrimination. Research suggests self-stigma and fear of rejection by others lead many persons to not pursuing life opportunities for themselves (13,14). The remainder of this paper further develops examples of public and self-stigma. In the process, we summarize research on ways of changing the impact of public and self-stigma.

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Topics: Mental illness (58%), Prejudice (57%), Social group (53%) ... show more

1,195 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0011000006292033
Robert T. Carter1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological assessment, research, and training.

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Topics: Internalized racism (58%), Traumatic stress (57%), Psychological evaluation (57%) ... show more

809 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/PCN.12988
Abstract: In December 2019, cases of life-threatening pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified as the source of infection. The number of reported cases has rapidly increased in Wuhan as well as other Chinese cities. The virus has also been identified in other parts of the world. On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this disease a ‘public health emergency of international concern.’ As of 3 February 2020, the Chinese government had reported 17 205 confirmed cases in Mainland China, and the WHO had reported 146 confirmed cases in 23 countries outside China. The virus has not been contained within Wuhan, and other major cities in China are likely to experience localized outbreaks. Foreign cities with close transport links to China could also become outbreak epicenters without careful public health interventions. In Japan, economic impacts and social disruptions have been reported. Several Japanese individuals who were on Japanese-government-chartered airplanes from Wuhan to Japan were reported as coronavirus-positive. Also, human-to-human transmission was confirmed in Nara Prefecture on 28 January 2020. Since then, the public has shown anxiety-related behaviors and there has been a significant shortage of masks and antiseptics in drug stores. The economic impact has been substantial. Stock prices have dropped in China and Japan, and other parts of the world are also showing some synchronous decline. As of 3 February 2020, no one had died directly from coronavirus infection in Japan. Tragically, however, a 37-year-old government worker who had been in charge of isolated returnees died from apparent suicide. This is not the first time that the Japanese people have experienced imperceptible-agent emergencies – often dubbed as ‘CBRNE’ (i.e., chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives). Japan has endured two atomic bombings in 1945, the sarin gas attacks in 1995, the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, and the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011: all of which carried fear and risk associated with unseen agents. All of these events provoked social disruption. Overwhelming and sensational news headlines and images added anxiety and fear to these situations and fostered rumors and hyped information as individuals filled in the absence of information with rumors. The affected people were subject to societal rejection, discrimination, and stigmatization. Fukushima survivors tend to attribute physical changes to the event (regardless of actual exposure) and have decreased perceived health, which is associated with decreased life expectancy. Fear of the unknown raises anxiety levels in healthy individuals as well as those with preexisting mental health conditions. For example, studies of the 2001 anthrax letter attacks in the USA showed long-term mental health adversities as well as lowered health perception of the infected employees and responders. Public fear manifests as discrimination, stigmatization, and scapegoating of specific populations, authorities, and scientists. As we write this letter, the coronavirus emergency is rapidly evolving. Nonetheless, we can more or less predict expected mental/physical health consequences and the most vulnerable populations. First, peoples’ emotional responses will likely include extreme fear and uncertainty. Moreover, negative societal behaviors will be often driven by fear and distorted perceptions of risk. These experiences might evolve to include a broad range of public mental health concerns, including distress reactions (insomnia, anger, extreme fear of illness even in those not exposed), health risk behaviors (increased use of alcohol and tobacco, social isolation), mental health disorders (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, somatization), and lowered perceived health. It is essential for mental health professionals to provide necessary support to those exposed and to those who deliver care. Second, particular effort must be directed to vulnerable populations, which include: (i) the infected and ill patients, their families, and colleagues; (ii) Chinese individuals and communities; (iii) individuals with pre-existing mental/physical conditions; and, last but not least, (iv) health-care and aid workers, especially nurses and physicians working directly with ill or quarantined persons. If nothing else, the death of the government quarantine worker must remind us to recognize the extent of psychological stress associated with imperceptible agent emergencies and to give paramount weight to the integrity and rights of vulnerable populations.

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Topics: Coronavirus (52%), Mental health (50%)

749 Citations