Disease, illness, sickness, health, healing and wholeness: exploring some elusive concepts.
01 Jun 2000-Medical Humanities (Med Humanit)-Vol. 26, Iss: 1, pp 9-17
TL;DR: The precise meaning of terms like health, healing and wholeness is likely to remain elusive, because the disconcerting openness of the outlook gained from experience alone resists the reduction of first-person judgments to third-person explanations.
Abstract: Concepts such as disease and health can be difficult to define precisely. Part of the reason for this is that they embody value judgments and are rooted in metaphor. The precise meaning of terms like health, healing and wholeness is likely to remain elusive, because the disconcerting openness of the outlook gained from experience alone resists the reduction of first-person judgments (including those of religion) to third-person explanations (including those of science).
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TL;DR: Sickness absence and incapacity from non-specific musculoskeletal conditions could be reduced by 33-50%, but that depends on getting all stakeholders onside and a fundamental shift in thinking about these conditions-in health care, in the workplace and in society.
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common causes of sickness absence, long-term incapacity for work and ill-health retirement. The number of Incapacity Benefit (IB) recipients in the United Kingdom has trebled since 1979, despite improvement in objective measures of health. Most of the trend is in non-specific conditions (largely subjective complaints, often with little objective pathology or impairment). Understanding incapacity requires a biopsychosocial model that addresses all the physical, psychological and social factors involved in human illness and disability. Rehabilitation should be directed to overcome biopsychosocial obstacles to recovery and return to work. These principles are fundamental to better clinical and occupational management and minimizing incapacity. Sickness absence and incapacity from non-specific musculoskeletal conditions could be reduced by 33-50%, but that depends on getting all stakeholders onside and a fundamental shift in thinking about these conditions-in health care, in the workplace and in society.
TL;DR: It is revealed that healing is rarely defined, nor is its dimensionality or determinants described, and persistent lack of critical attention to the meaning of “healing” has implications for medical research and practice.
Abstract: This article examines the conceptual history and contemporary usages of the term "healing." In response to longstanding definitional ambiguity, reflections are offered on what are termed the diagnostic criteria, nosology, and etiology of healing. First, a summary is provided of how healing has been defined within medicine. Second, the dimensionality of healing is discussed. Third, healing's putative determinants are outlined. For biomedicine, healing mainly concerns repair of wounds or lesions and is unidimensional. For complementary medicine, by contrast, healing has been defined alternatively as an intervention, an outcome, and a process-or all of these at once-and is multidimensional, impacting multiple systems from the cellular to the psychosocial and beyond. Notwithstanding these usages, a review of medical texts reveals that healing is rarely defined, nor is its dimensionality or determinants described. Persistent lack of critical attention to the meaning of "healing" has implications for medical research and practice.
TL;DR: Assessment approaches to spirituality should not impose a view or definition of spirituality, but should seek to elicit the thoughts, memories and experiences that give coherence to a person's life.
Abstract: The recent surge of interest in links between spirituality and health has generated many assessment approaches that seek to identify spiritual need and suggest strategic responses for health care practitioners. The interpretations of spirituality made within health frameworks do not do justice to the way spirituality is understood in society in general. Spiritual assessment should not impose a view or definition of spirituality, but should seek to elicit the thoughts, memories and experiences that give coherence to a person's life. Spiritual assessment tools should not be used without adequate exploration of the assumptions made. Assessment processes need to be adequately conceptualised and practically relevant.
01 Jan 1882
TL;DR: Joke, cunning and revenge: prelude in German rhymes Book one Book two Book three Book four: St Januarius Book five: we fearless ones Appendix: songs of Prince Vogelfrei
Abstract: Joke, cunning and revenge: prelude in German rhymes Book one Book two Book three Book four: St Januarius Book five: we fearless ones Appendix: songs of Prince Vogelfrei
31 Dec 1978
TL;DR: A critical examination of certain concepts: the normal, anomaly, and disease the normal and the experimental, as well as a new concept in pathology: error.
Abstract: Section I Essay on Some Problems Concerning the Normal and the Pathological (1943).- Preface to the Second Edition (1950).- One. Is the Pathological State Merely a Quantitative Modification of the Normal State?.- I. Introduction to the problem.- II. Auguste Comte and 'Broussais's principle'.- III. Claude Bernard and experimental pathology.- IV. The conceptions of Rene Leriche.- V. Implications of the theory.- Two. Do Sciences of the Normal and the Pathological Exist?.- I. Introduction to the problem.- II. A critical examination of certain concepts: the normal, anomaly, and disease the normal and the experimental.- III. Norm and average.- IV. Disease, cure, health.- V. Physiology and pathology.- Conclusion.- Section II New Reflections on the Normal and the Pathological (1963-1966).- Twenty years later...- I. From the social to the vital.- II. On organic norms in man.- III. A new concept in pathology: error.- Epilogue.- Notes to Section I.- Bibliography to Section I.- Notes to Section II.- Bibliography to Section II.- Glossary of Medical Terms.- Index of Names.
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the causes that increase or decrease the intensity of the sense impressions of the human senses, and the effects of these causes on the human ability to reason and reason.
Abstract: I. Anthropological Didactic.- Book I. On the Cognitive Powers.- On Self-Consciousness.- On Egoism.- On Voluntary Consciousness of Our Ideas.- On Observing Oneself.- On Ideas That We Have without Being Conscious of Them.- On Distinctness and Indistinctness in Consciousness of Our Ideas.- On Sensibility as Contrasted with Understanding.- Apology for Sensibility.- On Ability with Regard to the Cognitive Powers in General.- On Artificial Play with Sensory Semblance.- On Permissible Moral Semblance.- On the Five Senses.- On Inner Sense.- On the Causes that Increase or Decrease the Intensity of Our Sense Impressions.- On the Inhibition, Weakening, and Total Loss of the Sense Powers.- On the Constructive Power belonging to Sensibility According to Its Various Forms.- On the Power of Bringing the Past and the Future to Mind by Imagination.- On Involuntary Invention in a State of Health - That Is, on Dreaming.- On the Power of Using Signs.- On the Cognitive Power Insofar As It Is Based on Understanding.- On Deficiencies and Diseases of the Soul with Respect to Its Cognitive Power.- On Talents in the Cognitive Power.- Book II. The Feeling of Pleasure and Displeasure.- On Sensuous Pleasure.- A. On the Feeling for the Agreeable, or Sensuous Pleasure in the Sensation of an Object.- B. On the Feeling for the Beautiful, or Taste.- Book III. On the Appetitive Power.- On Affects in Comparison with Passion.- On the Passions.- On the Highest Physical Good.- On the Highest Moral-Physical Good.- II. Anthropological Characterization.- A. The Character of the Person.- 1. On [a Man's] Nature.- 2. On Temperament.- 3. On Character as [a Man's] Way of Thinking.- On Physiognomy.- B. On the Character of the Sexes.- C. On the Character of Nations.- D. On the Character of Races.- E. On the Character of the Species.- Description of the Character of the Human Species.- Notes.