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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.64691

Disease-related mutations in PI3Kγ disrupt regulatory C-terminal dynamics and reveal a path to selective inhibitors

04 Mar 2021-eLife (eLife Sciences Publications Limited)-Vol. 10
Abstract: Class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are master regulators of cellular functions, with the class IB PI3K catalytic subunit (p110g) playing key roles in immune signalling. p110g is a key factor in inflammatory diseases, and has been identified as a therapeutic target for cancers due to its immunomodulatory role. Using a combined biochemical/biophysical approach, we have revealed insight into regulation of kinase activity, specifically defining how immunodeficiency and oncogenic mutations of R1021 in the C-terminus can inactivate or activate enzyme activity. Screening of inhibitors using HDX-MS revealed that activation loop-binding inhibitors induce allosteric conformational changes that mimic those in the R1021C mutant. Structural analysis of advanced PI3K inhibitors in clinical development revealed novel binding pockets that can be exploited for further therapeutic development. Overall this work provides unique insights into regulatory mechanisms that control PI3Kg kinase activity, and shows a framework for the design of PI3K isoform and mutant selective inhibitors.

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Topics: Kinase activity (59%), Allosteric regulation (52%), PIK3CG (52%)
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13543776.2021.1924150
Abstract: Introduction: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating cell growth and proliferation and...

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Topics: PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (66%), Protein kinase B (65%), Phosphatidylinositol (60%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.ABJ4282
01 Aug 2021-Science Advances
Abstract: The class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), PI3Kγ, is a master regulator of immune cell function and a promising drug target for both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Critical to PI3Kγ function is the association of the p110γ catalytic subunit to either a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit, which mediates activation by G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a heterodimeric PI3Kγ complex, p110γ-p101. This structure reveals a unique assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits that is distinct from other class I PI3K complexes. p101 mediates activation through its Gβγ-binding domain, recruiting the heterodimer to the membrane and allowing for engagement of a secondary Gβγ-binding site in p110γ. Mutations at the p110γ-p101 and p110γ-adaptor binding domain interfaces enhanced Gβγ activation. A nanobody that specifically binds to the p101-Gβγ interface blocks activation, providing a novel tool to study and target p110γ-p101-specific signaling events in vivo.

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Topics: Binding domain (55%), Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (54%), Protein subunit (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STR.2021.07.002
03 Aug 2021-Structure
Abstract: There is considerable interest in developing antibodies as modulators of signaling pathways. One of the most important signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which plays fundamental roles in growth, metabolism, and immunity. The class IB PI3K, PI3Kγ, is a heterodimeric complex composed of a catalytic p110γ subunit bound to a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit. PI3Kγ is a critical component in multiple immune signaling processes and is dependent on activation by Ras and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to mediate its cellular roles. Here we describe the rapid and efficient characterization of multiple PI3Kγ binding single-chain camelid nanobodies using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for structural and biochemical studies. We identify nanobodies that stimulated lipid kinase activity, block Ras activation, and specifically inhibited p101-mediated GPCR activation. Overall, our work reveals insight into PI3Kγ regulation and identifies sites that may be exploited for therapeutic development.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.01.446612
01 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), PI3K{gamma}, is a master regulator of immune cell function, and a promising drug target for both cancer and inflammatory diseases. Critical to PI3K{gamma} function is the association of the p110{gamma} catalytic subunit to either a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit, which mediates activation by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of a heterodimeric PI3K{gamma} complex, p110{gamma}-p101. This structure reveals a unique assembly of catalytic and regulatory subunits that is distinct from other class I PI3K complexes. p101 mediates activation through its G{beta}{gamma} binding domain, recruiting the heterodimer to the membrane and allowing for engagement of a secondary G{beta}{gamma} binding site in p110{gamma}. Multiple oncogenic mutations mapped to these novel interfaces and enhanced G{beta}{gamma} activation. A nanobody that specifically binds to the p101-G{beta}{gamma} interface blocks activation providing a novel tool to study and target p110{gamma}-p101-specific signaling events in vivo.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.01.446614
01 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: There is considerable interest in developing antibodies as modulators of signaling pathways. One of the most important signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which plays fundamental roles in growth, metabolism and immunity. The class IB PI3K, PI3K{gamma}, is a heterodimeric complex composed of a catalytic p110{gamma} subunit bound to a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit. PI3K{gamma} is a critical component in multiple immune signaling processes and is dependent on activation by Ras and GPCRs to mediate its cellular roles. Here we describe the rapid and efficient characterization of multiple PI3K{gamma} single chain camelid nanobodies using hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for structural and biochemical studies. This allowed us to identify nanobodies that stimulated lipid kinase activity, blocked Ras activation and specifically inhibited p101-mediated GPCR activation. Overall, this reveals novel insight into PI3K{gamma} regulation and identifies sites that may be exploited for therapeutic development. Highlights- HDX-MS rapidly identifies epitopes of camelid single-chain nanobodies raised against Class IB PI3K complexes, p110{gamma}/p101 and p110{gamma}/p84 - A nanobody targeting p101 improves local resolution in EM studies with p110{gamma}/p101 facilitating structural characterization of the complex - Nanobodies that bind at the interfaces with the lipidated activators Ras and G{beta}{gamma} can prevent activation of p110{gamma}/p101 and p110{gamma}/p84

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Topics: Lipid kinase activity (52%)
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102 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.445869
Abstract: Classical Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for liquid water in the NPT ensemble at 25 °C and 1 atm using six of the simpler intermolecular potential functions for the water dimer: Bernal–Fowler (BF), SPC, ST2, TIPS2, TIP3P, and TIP4P. Comparisons are made with experimental thermodynamic and structural data including the recent neutron diffraction results of Thiessen and Narten. The computed densities and potential energies are in reasonable accord with experiment except for the original BF model, which yields an 18% overestimate of the density and poor structural results. The TIPS2 and TIP4P potentials yield oxygen–oxygen partial structure functions in good agreement with the neutron diffraction results. The accord with the experimental OH and HH partial structure functions is poorer; however, the computed results for these functions are similar for all the potential functions. Consequently, the discrepancy may be due to the correction terms needed in processing the neutron data or to an effect uniformly neglected in the computations. Comparisons are also made for self‐diffusion coefficients obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Overall, the SPC, ST2, TIPS2, and TIP4P models give reasonable structural and thermodynamic descriptions of liquid water and they should be useful in simulations of aqueous solutions. The simplicity of the SPC, TIPS2, and TIP4P functions is also attractive from a computational standpoint.

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Topics: Water model (53%), Solvent models (52%), Water dimer (51%) ... read more

29,424 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444910007493
Abstract: Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Furthermore, tools are provided for model validation as well as interfaces to external programs for refinement, validation and graphics. The software is designed to be easy to learn for novice users, which is achieved by ensuring that tools for common tasks are `discoverable' through familiar user-interface elements (menus and toolbars) or by intuitive behaviour (mouse controls). Recent developments have focused on providing tools for expert users, with customisable key bindings, extensions and an extensive scripting interface. The software is under rapid development, but has already achieved very widespread use within the crystallographic community. The current state of the software is presented, with a description of the facilities available and of some of the underlying methods employed.

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Topics: Software design (52%), Scripting language (51%), Software (50%)

17,770 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0021889807021206
Abstract: Phaser is a program for phasing macromolecular crystal structures by both molecular replacement and experimental phasing methods. The novel phasing algorithms implemented in Phaser have been developed using maximum likelihood and multivariate statistics. For molecular replacement, the new algorithms have proved to be significantly better than traditional methods in discriminating correct solutions from noise, and for single-wavelength anomalous dispersion experimental phasing, the new algorithms, which account for correlations between F+ and F−, give better phases (lower mean phase error with respect to the phases given by the refined structure) than those that use mean F and anomalous differences ΔF. One of the design concepts of Phaser was that it be capable of a high degree of automation. To this end, Phaser (written in C++) can be called directly from Python, although it can also be called using traditional CCP4 keyword-style input. Phaser is a platform for future development of improved phasing methods and their release, including source code, to the crystallographic community.

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Topics: Phaser (58%)

15,505 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/JMBI.1993.1626
Andrej Sali1, Tom L. Blundell1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We describe a comparative protein modelling method designed to find the most probable structure for a sequence given its alignment with related structures. The three-dimensional (3D) model is obtained by optimally satisfying spatial restraints derived from the alignment and expressed as probability density functions (pdfs) for the features restrained. For example, the probabilities for main-chain conformations of a modelled residue may be restrained by its residue type, main-chain conformation of an equivalent residue in a related protein, and the local similarity between the two sequences. Several such pdfs are obtained from the correlations between structural features in 17 families of homologous proteins which have been aligned on the basis of their 3D structures. The pdfs restrain C alpha-C alpha distances, main-chain N-O distances, main-chain and side-chain dihedral angles. A smoothing procedure is used in the derivation of these relationships to minimize the problem of a sparse database. The 3D model of a protein is obtained by optimization of the molecular pdf such that the model violates the input restraints as little as possible. The molecular pdf is derived as a combination of pdfs restraining individual spatial features of the whole molecule. The optimization procedure is a variable target function method that applies the conjugate gradients algorithm to positions of all non-hydrogen atoms. The method is automated and is illustrated by the modelling of trypsin from two other serine proteinases.

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Topics: Loop modeling (54%), Global distance test (52%)

11,594 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444909042073
Abstract: MolProbity is a structure-validation web service that provides broad-spectrum solidly based evaluation of model quality at both the global and local levels for both proteins and nucleic acids. It relies heavily on the power and sensitivity provided by optimized hydrogen placement and all-atom contact analysis, complemented by updated versions of covalent-geometry and torsion-angle criteria. Some of the local corrections can be performed automatically in MolProbity and all of the diagnostics are presented in chart and graphical forms that help guide manual rebuilding. X-ray crystallography provides a wealth of biologically important molecular data in the form of atomic three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and increasingly large complexes in multiple forms and states. Advances in automation, in everything from crystallization to data collection to phasing to model building to refinement, have made solving a structure using crystallo­graphy easier than ever. However, despite these improvements, local errors that can affect biological interpretation are widespread at low resolution and even high-resolution structures nearly all contain at least a few local errors such as Ramachandran outliers, flipped branched protein side chains and incorrect sugar puckers. It is critical both for the crystallographer and for the end user that there are easy and reliable methods to diagnose and correct these sorts of errors in structures. MolProbity is the authors' contribution to helping solve this problem and this article reviews its general capabilities, reports on recent enhancements and usage, and presents evidence that the resulting improvements are now beneficially affecting the global database.

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Topics: Structure validation (54%)

10,556 Citations