scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Displacement Measurement and Its Application in Interframe Image Coding

01 Dec 1981-IEEE Transactions on Communications (IEEE)-Vol. 29, Iss: 12, pp 1799-1808
TL;DR: The motion compensation is applied for analysis and design of a hybrid coding scheme and the results show a factor of two gain at low bit rates.
Abstract: A new technique for estimating interframe displacement of small blocks with minimum mean square error is presented. An efficient algorithm for searching the direction of displacement has been described. The results of applying the technique to two sets of images are presented which show 8-10 dB improvement in interframe variance reduction due to motion compensation. The motion compensation is applied for analysis and design of a hybrid coding scheme and the results show a factor of two gain at low bit rates.

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results show that the proposed diamond search (DS) algorithm is better than the four-step search (4SS) and block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS), in terms of mean-square error performance and required number of search points.
Abstract: Based on the study of motion vector distribution from several commonly used test image sequences, a new diamond search (DS) algorithm for fast block-matching motion estimation (BMME) is proposed in this paper. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DS algorithm greatly outperforms the well-known three-step search (TSS) algorithm. Compared with the new three-step search (NTSS) algorithm, the DS algorithm achieves close performance but requires less computation by up to 22% on average. Experimental results also show that the DS algorithm is better than the four-step search (4SS) and block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS), in terms of mean-square error performance and required number of search points.

1,949 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...search(LOGS) [2], three-step search(TSS) [3], conjugate direction search(CDS) [4],cross search(CS) [5],new three-step search (NTSS) [6], four-step search(4SS) [7],block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS) [8], etc....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation results show that, as compared to TSS, NTSS is much more robust, produces smaller motion compensation errors, and has a very compatible computational complexity.
Abstract: The three-step search (TSS) algorithm has been widely used as the motion estimation technique in some low bit-rate video compression applications, owing to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, TSS uses a uniformly allocated checking point pattern in its first step, which becomes inefficient for the estimation of small motions. A new three-step search (NTSS) algorithm is proposed in the paper. The features of NTSS are that it employs a center-biased checking point pattern in the first step, which is derived by making the search adaptive to the motion vector distribution, and a halfway-stop technique to reduce the computation cost. Simulation results show that, as compared to TSS, NTSS is much more robust, produces smaller motion compensation errors, and has a very compatible computational complexity. >

1,689 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation results show that the proposed 4SS performs better than the well-known three- step search and has similar performance to the new three-step search (N3SS) in terms of motion compensation errors.
Abstract: Based on the real world image sequence's characteristic of center-biased motion vector distribution, a new four-step search (4SS) algorithm with center-biased checking point pattern for fast block motion estimation is proposed in this paper. A halfway-stop technique is employed in the new algorithm with searching steps of 2 to 4 and the total number of checking points is varied from 17 to 27. Simulation results show that the proposed 4SS performs better than the well-known three-step search and has similar performance to the new three-step search (N3SS) in terms of motion compensation errors. In addition, the 4SS also reduces the worst-case computational requirement from 33 to 27 search points and the average computational requirement from 21 to 19 search points, as compared with N3SS.

1,619 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...The authors are with the CityU Image Processing Lab, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: First, the concept of vector quantization is introduced, then its application to digital images is explained, and the emphasis is on the usefulness of the vector quantification when it is combined with conventional image coding techniques, orWhen it is used in different domains.
Abstract: A review of vector quantization techniques used for encoding digital images is presented. First, the concept of vector quantization is introduced, then its application to digital images is explained. Spatial, predictive, transform, hybrid, binary, and subband vector quantizers are reviewed. The emphasis is on the usefulness of the vector quantization when it is combined with conventional image coding techniques, or when it is used in different domains. >

1,102 citations

Patent
03 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, a system of distributing video and audio information employs digital signal processing to achieve high rates of data compression, and the compressed and encoded audio and video information is sent over standard telephone, cable or satellite broadcast channels to a receiver specified by a subscriber of the service, preferably in less than real time, for later playback and optional recording on standard audio and/or video tape.
Abstract: A system of distributing video and/or audio information employs digital signal processing to achieve high rates of data compression. The compressed and encoded audio and/or video information is sent over standard telephone, cable or satellite broadcast channels to a receiver specified by a subscriber of the service, preferably in less than real time, for later playback and optional recording on standard audio and/or video tape.

1,032 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1981
TL;DR: A large variety of algorithms for image data compression are considered, starting with simple techniques of sampling and pulse code modulation (PCM) and state of the art algorithms for two-dimensional data transmission are reviewed.
Abstract: With the continuing growth of modern communications technology, demand for image transmission and storage is increasing rapidly. Advances in computer technology for mass storage and digital processing have paved the way for implementing advanced data compression techniques to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of images. In this paper a large variety of algorithms for image data compression are considered. Starting with simple techniques of sampling and pulse code modulation (PCM), state of the art algorithms for two-dimensional data transmission are reviewed. Topics covered include differential PCM (DPCM) and predictive coding, transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, adaptive techniques, and applications. Effects of channel errors and other miscellaneous related topics are also considered. While most of the examples and image models have been specialized for visual images, the techniques discussed here could be easily adapted more generally for multidimensional data compression. Our emphasis here is on fundamentals of the various techniques. A comprehensive bibliography with comments is included for a reader interested in further details of the theoretical and experimental results discussed here.

810 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methods of estimating displacements of moving objects from one frame to the next in a television scene and using such displacements for frame-to-frame prediction by a recursive algorithm are presented which make it attractive for hardware implementation.
Abstract: We present methods of estimating displacements of moving objects from one frame to the next in a television scene and using such displacements for frame-to-frame prediction. Displacement is estimated by a recursive algorithm which seeks to minimize a functional of the prediction error. Several simplifications of the algorithm are presented which make it attractive for hardware implementation. Performance of the algorithm is evaluated by computer simulations on two sequences of moving images containing various amounts and types of motion. In both cases, the use of displacement-based (or motion-compensated) prediction results in bit rates that are 22 to 50 percent lower than those obtained by simple “frame-difference” prediction, which is used commonly in the interframe coders.

553 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Arun N. Netravali1, J.O. Limb1
01 Mar 1980
TL;DR: This paper presents a review of techniques used for digital encoding of picture material, covering statistical models of picture signals and elements of psychophysics relevant to picture coding, followed by a description of the coding techniques.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of techniques used for digital encoding of picture material. Statistical models of picture signals and elements of psychophysics relevant to picture coding are covered first, followed by a description of the coding techniques. Detailed examples of three typical systems, which combine some of the coding principles, are given. A bright future for new systems is forecasted based on emerging new concepts, technology of integrated circuits and the need to digitize in a variety of contexts.

551 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extension to the basic concept of correlation detection as a means of image registration is developed that utilizes the spatial correlation within each image and greatly improves the detectability of image misregistration.
Abstract: An extension to the basic concept of correlation detection as a means of image registration is developed. The technique involves linear spatial preprocessing of the inages to be registered prior to the application of a correlation measure. This preprocessing operation utilizes the spatial correlation within each image and greatly improves the detectability of image misregistration. An analysis of the computational aspects of the algorithm is given. Also, results of a computer simulation to evaluate the technique are given.

366 citations