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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CERCOR/BHAA329

Distinct Representational Structure and Localization for Visual Encoding and Recall during Visual Imagery.

05 Mar 2021-Cerebral Cortex (Oxford University Press (OUP))-Vol. 31, Iss: 4, pp 1898-1913
Abstract: During memory recall and visual imagery, reinstatement is thought to occur as an echoing of the neural patterns during encoding. However, the precise information in these recall traces is relatively unknown, with previous work primarily investigating either broad distinctions or specific images, rarely bridging these levels of information. Using ultra-high-field (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging with an item-based visual recall task, we conducted an in-depth comparison of encoding and recall along a spectrum of granularity, from coarse (scenes, objects) to mid (e.g., natural, manmade scenes) to fine (e.g., living room, cupcake) levels. In the scanner, participants viewed a trial-unique item, and after a distractor task, visually imagined the initial item. During encoding, we observed decodable information at all levels of granularity in category-selective visual cortex. In contrast, information during recall was primarily at the coarse level with fine-level information in some areas; there was no evidence of mid-level information. A closer look revealed segregation between voxels showing the strongest effects during encoding and those during recall, and peaks of encoding-recall similarity extended anterior to category-selective cortex. Collectively, these results suggest visual recall is not merely a reactivation of encoding patterns, displaying a different representational structure and localization from encoding, despite some overlap.

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Topics: Recall (61%), Encoding (memory) (52%)
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CORTEX.2020.11.014
01 Feb 2021-Cortex
Abstract: Congenital aphantasia is a recently characterized variation of experience defined by the inability to form voluntary visual imagery, in individuals who are otherwise high performing. Because of this specific deficit to visual imagery, individuals with aphantasia serve as an ideal group for probing the nature of representations in visual memory, particularly the interplay of object, spatial, and symbolic information. Here, we conducted a large-scale online study of aphantasia and revealed a dissociation in object and spatial content in their memory representations. Sixty-one individuals with aphantasia and matched controls with typical imagery studied real-world scene images, and were asked to draw them from memory, and then later copy them during a matched perceptual condition. Drawings were objectively quantified by 2,795 online scorers for object and spatial details. Aphantasic participants recalled significantly fewer objects than controls, with less color in their drawings, and an increased reliance on verbal scaffolding. However, aphantasic participants showed high spatial accuracy equivalent to controls, and made significantly fewer memory errors. These differences between groups only manifested during recall, with no differences between groups during the matched perceptual condition. This object-specific memory impairment in individuals with aphantasia provides evidence for separate systems in memory that support object versus spatial information. The study also provides an important experimental validation for the existence of aphantasia as a variation in human imagery experience.

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Topics: Visual memory (64%), Memory errors (57%), Recall (56%) ... read more

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-22848-Z
Abstract: The neural systems supporting scene-perception and spatial-memory systems of the human brain are well-described. But how do these neural systems interact? Here, using fine-grained individual-subject fMRI, we report three cortical areas of the human brain, each lying immediately anterior to a region of the scene perception network in posterior cerebral cortex, that selectively activate when recalling familiar real-world locations. Despite their close proximity to the scene-perception areas, network analyses show that these regions constitute a distinct functional network that interfaces with spatial memory systems during naturalistic scene understanding. These "place-memory areas" offer a new framework for understanding how the brain implements memory-guided visual behaviors, including navigation.

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Topics: Human brain (53%)

9 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.05.25.115147
10 Dec 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: Here, we report a network of brain areas bridging the spatial-memory and scene-perception systems of the human brain. Using fine-grained individual-subject fMRI, we reveal three cortical areas of the human brain, each lying immediately anterior to a region of the scene perception network in posterior cerebral cortex, that selectively activate when recalling familiar real-world locations. Despite their close proximity to the scene-perception areas, network analyses show that these regions constitute a distinct functional network that interfaces with memory systems during naturalistic scene understanding. These place-memory areas offer a new framework for understanding how the brain implements memory-guided visual behaviors, including navigation.

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Topics: Human brain (54%), Bridging (networking) (53%), Cerebral cortex (50%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNHUM.2021.676032
Ayse Ilkay Isik1, Edward A. Vessel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: During aesthetically appealing visual experiences, visual content provides a basis for computation of affectively tinged representations of aesthetic value. How this happens in the brain is largely unexplored. Using engaging video clips of natural landscapes, we tested whether cortical regions that respond to perceptual aspects of an environment (e.g., spatial layout, object content and motion) were directly modulated by rated aesthetic appeal. Twenty-four participants watched a series of videos of natural landscapes while being scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reported both continuous ratings of enjoyment (during the videos) and overall aesthetic judgments (after each video). Although landscape videos engaged a greater expanse of high-level visual cortex compared to that observed for images of landscapes, independently localized category-selective visual regions (e.g., scene-selective parahippocampal place area and motion-selective hMT+) were not significantly modulated by aesthetic appeal. Rather, a whole-brain analysis revealed modulations by aesthetic appeal in ventral (collateral sulcus) and lateral (middle occipital sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) clusters that were adjacent to scene and motion selective regions. These findings suggest that aesthetic appeal per se is not represented in well-characterized feature- and category-selective regions of visual cortex. Rather, we propose that the observed activations reflect a local transformation from a feature-based visual representation to a representation of "elemental affect," computed through information-processing mechanisms that detect deviations from an observer's expectations. Furthermore, we found modulation by aesthetic appeal in subcortical reward structures but not in regions of the default-mode network (DMN) nor orbitofrontal cortex, and only weak evidence for associated changes in functional connectivity. In contrast to other visual aesthetic domains, aesthetically appealing interactions with natural landscapes may rely more heavily on comparisons between ongoing stimulation and well-formed representations of the natural world, and less on top-down processes for resolving ambiguities or assessing self-relevance.

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Topics: Visual perception (54%), Visual cortex (53%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA.2021.107976
Xenia Grande1, Xenia Grande2, David Berron2, Anne Maass2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
17 Sep 2021-Neuropsychologia
Abstract: Endel Tulving's episodic memory framework emphasizes the multifaceted re-experiencing of personal events. Indeed, decades of research focused on the experiential nature of episodic memories, usually treating recent episodic memory as a coherent experiential quality. However, recent insights into the functional architecture of the medial temporal lobe show that different types of mnemonic information are segregated into distinct neural pathways in brain circuits empirically associated with episodic memory. Moreover, recent memories do not fade as a whole under conditions of progressive neurodegeneration in these brain circuits, notably in Alzheimer's disease. Instead, certain memory content seem particularly vulnerable from the moment of their encoding while other content can remain memorable consistently across individuals and contexts. We propose that these observations are related to the content-specific functional architecture of the medial temporal lobe and consequently to a content-specific impairment of memory at different stages of the neurodegeneration. To develop Endel Tulving's inspirational legacy further and to advance our understanding of how memory function is affected by neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, we postulate that it is compelling to focus on the representational content of recent episodic memories.

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Topics: Episodic memory (69%), Temporal lobe (51%)

1 Citations


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92 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/CBMR.1996.0014
Robert W. Cox1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A package of computer programs for analysis and visualization of three-dimensional human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) results is described. The software can color overlay neural activation maps onto higher resolution anatomical scans. Slices in each cardinal plane can be viewed simultaneously. Manual placement of markers on anatomical landmarks allows transformation of anatomical and functional scans into stereotaxic (Talairach-Tournoux) coordinates. The techniques for automatically generating transformed functional data sets from manually labeled anatomical data sets are described. Facilities are provided for several types of statistical analyses of multiple 3D functional data sets. The programs are written in ANSI C and Motif 1.2 to run on Unix workstations.

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Topics: Visualization (50%)

8,845 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.102.3.419
Abstract: Damage to the hippocampal system disrupts recent memory but leaves remote memory intact. The account presented here suggests that memories are first stored via synaptic changes in the hippocampal system, that these changes support reinstatement of recent memories in the neocortex, that neocortical synapses change a little on each reinstatement, and that remote memory is based on accumulated neocortical changes. Models that learn via changes to connections help explain this organization. These models discover the structure in ensembles of items if learning of each item is gradual and interleaved with learning about other items. This suggests that the neocortex learns slowly to discover the structure in ensembles of experiences. The hippocampal system permits rapid learning of new items without disrupting this structure, and reinstatement of new memories interleaves them with others to integrate them into structured neocortical memory systems.

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3,813 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/33402
Russell A. Epstein1, Nancy Kanwisher1Institutions (1)
09 Apr 1998-Nature
Abstract: Medial temporal brain regions such as the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal cortex have been generally implicated in navigation and visual memory. However, the specific function of each of these regions is not yet clear. Here we present evidence that a particular area within human parahippocampal cortex is involved in a critical component of navigation: perceiving the local visual environment. This region, which we name the 'parahippocampal place area' (PPA), responds selectively and automatically in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to passively viewed scenes, but only weakly to single objects and not at all to faces. The critical factor for this activation appears to be the presence in the stimulus of information about the layout of local space. The response in the PPA to scenes with spatial layout but no discrete objects (empty rooms) is as strong as the response to complex meaningful scenes containing multiple objects (the same rooms furnished) and over twice as strong as the response to arrays of multiple objects without three-dimensional spatial context (the furniture from these rooms on a blank background). This response is reduced if the surfaces in the scene are rearranged so that they no longer define a coherent space. We propose that the PPA represents places by encoding the geometry of the local environment.

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Topics: Spatial view cells (54%), Visual memory (53%), Extrastriate body area (51%) ... read more

2,637 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/NEURO.06.004.2008
Abstract: A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g. single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement, and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices, which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. We propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA), in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing representational dissimilarity matrices. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. We argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience.

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2,132 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0042-6989(01)00073-6
01 May 2001-Vision Research
Abstract: Here we review recent findings that reveal the functional properties of extra-striate regions in the human visual cortex that are involved in the representation and perception of objects. We characterize both the invariant and non-invariant properties of these regions and we discuss the correlation between activation of these regions and recognition. Overall, these results indicate that the lateral occipital complex plays an important role in human object recognition.

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1,152 Citations


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