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Journal ArticleDOI

Distinctive mucositis and feeding-tube dependency in cetuximab plus radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

01 Feb 2015-Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 45, Iss: 2, pp 183-188

TL;DR: Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is recommended because most patients receiving cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have Grade ≥ 3 mucositis with distinctive features.

AbstractObjective Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be considered before chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, because severe mucositis is a common complication. We evaluated the mucosal findings and necessity of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving cetuximab and radiotherapy. Methods Fourteen consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving cetuximab and radiotherapy were analyzed. Results Patients' backgrounds were as follows: male/female, 8/6; median age, 64.5 years (range, 35-83 years); performance status, 0/1, 9/5. Primary tumor sites included the oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx in four, seven and three patients, respectively. Patients completed a median of eight cetuximab cycles. All patients received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (median dose, 70 Gy). Thirteen patients were treated with elective neck irradiation at the ipsilateral (n = 3) or bilateral (n = 10) nodes. Grade ≥ 3 mucositis/stomatitis (clinical examination) occurred in 85.7% patients (n = 12). The median irradiation dose was 33 Gy at the Grade 3 mucositis onset. Eight patients showed mucositis with distinctive features, a wide range of white-coated lesions with a clear border; hypopharyngeal atresia was observed in two patients. Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 11 patients, and 11 patients (78.6%) actually required nutritional support because of Grade ≥ 3 mucositis/stomatitis (functional/symptomatic). Conclusions Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is recommended because most patients receiving cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have Grade ≥ 3 mucositis with distinctive features.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2008
Abstract: Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases both local tumor control and toxicity. This study evaluates clinical factors that are associated with and might predict severe late toxicity after CCRT. Methods Patients were analyzed from a subset of three previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3 to 4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity (RTOG/European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer late toxicity scoring system) and/or requirement for a feeding tube ≥ 2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Case-control analysis was performed, with a multivariable logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results A total of 230 patients were assessable for this analysis: 99 p...

206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The interesting properties of metformin such as radioprotection, radiomitigation and radiosensitization could make it an interesting adjuvant for clinical radiotherapy, as well as an interesting candidate for mitigation of radiation injury after a radiation disaster.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nowadays, ionizing radiation is used for several applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, and nuclear power generation. Besides the beneficial roles of ionizing radiation, there are some concerns about accidental exposure to radioactive sources. The threat posed by its use in terrorism is of global concern. Furthermore, there are several side effects to normal organs for patients who had undergone radiation treatment for cancer. Hence, the modulation of radiation response in normal tissues was one of the most important aims of radiobiology. Although, so far, several agents have been investigated for protection and mitigation of radiation injury. Agents such as amifostine may lead to severe toxicity, while others may interfere with radiation therapy outcomes as a result of tumor protection. Metformin is a natural agent that is well known as an antidiabetic drug. It has shown some antioxidant effects and enhances DNA repair capacity, thereby ameliorating cell death following exposure to radiation. Moreover, through targeting endogenous ROS production within cells, it can mitigate radiation injury. This could potentially make it an effective radiation countermeasure. In contrast to other radioprotectors, metformin has shown modulatory effects through induction of several genes such as AMPK, which suppresses reduction/ oxidation (redox) reactions, protects cells from accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and attenuates initiation of inflammation as well as fibrotic pathways. Interestingly, these properties of metformin can sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: In this article, we aimed to review the interesting properties of metformin such as radioprotection, radiomitigation and radiosensitization, which could make it an interesting adjuvant for clinical radiotherapy, as well as an interesting candidate for mitigation of radiation injury after a radiation disaster. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the toxicity profile of the different systemic agents is provided and a perspective into the future of SCCHN treatment is provided.
Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a difficult to treat malignancy and represents the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Systemic therapy has a critical role in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic disease. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been primarily used along with radiation and surgery, with cisplatin being the standard of care choice of therapy. When contraindications to cisplatin exist, other agents such as carboplatin, taxanes, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab are used. Similarly, in the advanced or metastatic setting, platinum agents, taxanes and cetuximab have been predominantly utilized. With the recent approval of novel agents such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and their distinct toxicity profiles, an understanding of the potential sequelae of the different systemic agents is essential to the careful selection of agents in the advanced disease setting. Going forward, choosing novel agents will be weighed against traditional chemotherapy, and understanding the toxicities at stake is critical in this process. In addition to providing an overview of the toxicity profile of the different systemic agents, we also provide a perspective into the future of SCCHN treatment.

25 citations


Cites background from "Distinctive mucositis and feeding-t..."

  • ...However, thus far dding TPF to cisplatin based CCRT has not been shown to be supeior over cisplatin-based CCRT alone (Haddad et al., 2013; Cohen t al., 2014; Hitt et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Budach et al., 2016)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Regardless of p16 status, the addition of cetuximab to RT did not alter the incidence, time to onset, severity, or duration of mucositis and dysphagia and did not impact the frequency of feeding tube use.
Abstract: Background Mucositis and dysphagia are common adverse effects of radiotherapy (RT) treatment of locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). Chemotherapy added to RT increases survival rates but causes worse mucositis and dysphagia. The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of p16 status on mucositis, dysphagia, and feeding tube use in LA-SCCHN among patients treated with RT ± cetuximab in the phase 3 IMCL-9815 trial. Methods Patients received RT plus weekly cetuximab or RT alone. Subgroup analyses were conducted on patients with p16-positive (n = 75) or p16-negative (n = 106) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The onset and duration of mucositis and dysphagia by treatment arm and p16 status were displayed using Kaplan–Meier curves and the log-rank test. P values for the incidence of mucositis and dysphagia were calculated using the Fisher exact test. Feeding tube use was assessed as the percent of patients reporting use. Results The baseline characteristics of patients treated with RT ± cetuximab were similar in both the p16-positive and p16-negative OPC subgroups. Patients within the p16-positive OPC subgroup had higher Karnofsky scores and were more likely to have stage T1–T3 cancer and be from the United States. Regardless of p16 status, there was no difference in the onset or duration of grade 3/4 mucositis or dysphagia in patients receiving RT plus cetuximab compared with those receiving RT alone. In the overall population, and the p16-positive and p16-negative OPC subpopulations, feeding tube use was not different for patients receiving RT plus cetuximab compared with RT alone. Conclusion Regardless of p16 status, the addition of cetuximab to RT did not alter the incidence, time to onset, severity, or duration of mucositis and dysphagia and did not impact the frequency of feeding tube use.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature and clinical experience across Asian countries were collated to compile a practical and implementable set of recommendations for Asian oncologists to manage skin- and mucosa-related toxicities arising from different types of radiation, with or without the addition of cetuximab or chemotherapy.
Abstract: With increasing numbers of patients with unresectable locoregionally advanced (LA) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving cetuximab/radiotherapy (RT), several guidelines on the early detection and management of skin-related toxicities have been developed. Considering the existing management guidelines for these treatment-induced conditions, clinical applicability and standardization of grading methods has remained a cause of concern globally, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, we attempted to collate the literature and clinical experience across Asian countries to compile a practical and implementable set of recommendations for Asian oncologists to manage skin- and mucosa-related toxicities arising from different types of radiation, with or without the addition of cetuximab or chemotherapy. In December 2013, an international panel of experts in the field of head and neck cancer management assembled for an Asia–Pacific head and neck cancer expert panel meeting in China. The compilation of discussion outcomes of this meeting and literature data ultimately led to the development of a set of recommendations for physicians with regards to the approach and management of dermatological conditions arising from RT, chemotherapy/RT and cetuximab/RT, and similarly for the approach and management of mucositis resulting from RT, with or without the addition of chemotherapy or cetuximab. These recommendations helped to adapt guidelines published in the literature or text books into bedside practice, and may also serve as a starting point for developing individual institutional side-effect management protocols with adequate training and education.

21 citations


Cites background or result from "Distinctive mucositis and feeding-t..."

  • ...At the same time, as mentioned by several oncologists, the reported rates of skin toxicity and mucositis with cetuximab/RT in daily practice may be higher than that reported in the pivotal studies with this combination [15, 16]....

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  • ...As observed in the Bonner trial [3], the incidence of grade 3–4 mucositis and dysphagia did not differ in the cetuximab/RT arm vs. RT alone, with 55.8 % vs. 51.9 % , and 26 % vs. 29.7 % respectively; while in the TREMPLIN study, the occurrence of grade 3–4 mucositis was 45 % with cetuximab/RT versus 47 % with CCRT. Asian clinical studies in Chinese [29] and Japanese [16, 30] populations have also shown a similar or sometimes worse outcome of cetuximab addition to RT, versus RT alone, upon the occurrence of mucositis in these patients....

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  • ...According to Japanese experience, radiation dermatitis can be manageable by gentle washing and moistening of the woundhealing environment [20]....

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  • ...Okano S, Yoshino T, Fujii M, Onozawa Y, Kodaira T, Fujii H, et al. Phase II study of cetuximab plus concomitant boost radiotherapy in Japanese patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck....

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  • ...Asian clinical studies in Chinese [29] and Japanese [16, 30] populations have also shown a...

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Treatment of locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer with concomitant high-dose radiotherapy plus cetuximab improves locoreGional control and reduces mortality without increasing the common toxic effects associated with radiotherapy to the head andneck.
Abstract: BACKGROUND We conducted a multinational, randomized study to compare radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, in the treatment of locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. METHODS Patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with high-dose radiotherapy alone (213 patients) or high-dose radiotherapy plus weekly cetuximab (211 patients) at an initial dose of 400 mg per square meter of body-surface area, followed by 250 mg per square meter weekly for the duration of radiotherapy. The primary end point was the duration of control of locoregional disease; secondary end points were overall survival, progression-free survival, the response rate, and safety. RESULTS The median duration of locoregional control was 24.4 months among patients treated with cetuximab plus radiotherapy and 14.9 months among those given radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio for locoregional progression or death, 0.68; P = 0.005). With a median follow-up of 54.0 months, the median duration of overall survival was 49.0 months among patients treated with combined therapy and 29.3 months among those treated with radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio for death, 0.74; P = 0.03). Radiotherapy plus cetuximab significantly prolonged progression-free survival (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.70; P = 0.006). With the exception of acneiform rash and infusion reactions, the incidence of grade 3 or greater toxic effects, including mucositis, did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer with concomitant highdose radiotherapy plus cetuximab improves locoregional control and reduces mortality without increasing the common toxic effects associated with radiotherapy to the head and neck. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004227.)

4,409 citations


"Distinctive mucositis and feeding-t..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...(8,9) revealed that the addition of cetuximab to radiotherapy significantly improved the overall survival, progression-free survival and locoregional control compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced HNSCC....

    [...]

  • ...The Bonner trial demonstrated that the incidence of adverse events commonly associated with radiotherapy of the head and neck, including mucositis, xerostomia and dysphagia, did not differ significantly between a cetuximab plus radiotherapy arm and a radiotherapy arm alone (8)....

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  • ...The Bonner trial demonstrated that the incidences of severe adverse events in the cetuximab plus radiotherapy arm were similar to those in the radiotherapy alone arm with the exception of an acneiform rash and infusion-related events (8)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with laryngeal cancer, radiotherapy with concurrent administration of cisplatin is superior to induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone for larynGEal preservation and locoregional control.
Abstract: Background Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin plus fluorouracil followed by radiotherapy is the standard alternative to total laryngectomy for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. The value of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy and the optimal timing of chemotherapy are unknown. Methods We randomly assigned patients with locally advanced cancer of the larynx to one of three treatments: induction cisplatin plus fluorouracil followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy with concurrent administration of cisplatin, or radiotherapy alone. The primary end point was preservation of the larynx. Results A total of 547 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years. At two years, the proportion of patients who had an intact larynx after radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin (88 percent) differed significantly from the proportions in the groups given induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (75 percent, P=0.005) or radiotherapy alone (70 ...

2,549 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall survival was significantly improved in those who experienced an acneiform rash of at least grade 2 severity compared with patients with no rash or grade 1 rash, confirming cetuximab plus radiotherapy as an important treatment option in this group of patients.
Abstract: Summary Background Previous results from our phase 3 randomised trial showed that adding cetuximab to primary radiotherapy increased overall survival in patients with locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN) at 3 years. Here we report the 5-year survival data, and investigate the relation between cetuximabinduced rash and survival. Methods Patients with LASCCHN of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx with measurable disease were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either comprehensive head and neck radiotherapy alone for 6–7 weeks or radiotherapy plus weekly doses of cetuximab: 400 mg/m² initial dose, followed by seven weekly doses at 250 mg/m². Randomisation was done with an adaptive minimisation technique to balance assignments across stratifi cation factors of Karnofsky performance score, T stage, N stage, and radiation fractionation. The trial was un-blinded. The primary endpoint was locoregional control, with a secondary endpoint of survival. Following discussions with the US Food and Drug Administration, the dataset was locked, except for queries to the sites about overall survival, before our previous report in 2006, so that an independent review could be done. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Following completion of treatment, patients underwent physical examination and radiographic imaging every 4 months for 2 years, and then every 6 months thereafter . The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT00004227. Findings Patients were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy with (n=211) or without (n=213) cetuximab, and all patients were followed for survival. Updated median overall survival for patients treated with cetuximab and radiotherapy was 49·0 months (95% CI 32·8–69·5) versus 29·3 months (20·6–41·4) in the radiotherapy-alone group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 95% CI 0·56–0·95; p=0·018). 5-year overall survival was 45·6% in the cetuximab-plus-radiotherapy group and 36·4% in the radiotherapy-alone group. Additionally, for the patients treated with cetuximab, overall survival was signifi cantly improved in those who experienced an acneiform rash of at least grade 2 severity compared with patients with no rash or grade 1 rash (HR 0·49, 0·34–0·72; p=0·002). Interpretation For patients with LASCCHN, cetuximab plus radiotherapy signifi cantly improves overall survival at 5 years compared with radiotherapy alone, confi rming cetuximab plus radiotherapy as an important treatment option in this group of patients. Cetuximab-treated patients with prominent cetuximab-induced rash (grade 2 or above) have better survival than patients with no or grade 1 rash.

1,644 citations


"Distinctive mucositis and feeding-t..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(8,9) revealed that the addition of cetuximab to radiotherapy significantly improved the overall survival, progression-free survival and locoregional control compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced HNSCC....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Older age, advanced T-stage, and larynx/hypopharynx primary site were strong independent risk factors and neck dissection after CCRT was associated with an increased risk of these complications.
Abstract: Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases both local tumor control and toxicity. This study evaluates clinical factors that are associated with and might predict severe late toxicity after CCRT. Methods Patients were analyzed from a subset of three previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3 to 4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity (RTOG/European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer late toxicity scoring system) and/or requirement for a feeding tube ≥ 2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Case-control analysis was performed, with a multivariable logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results A total of 230 patients were assessable for this analysis: 99 p...

1,018 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The collective data suggest that the profound in vivo antitumor activity identified in the xenograft setting when C225 is combined with radiation derives from more than simply the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of EGFR system inhibition.
Abstract: We have recently demonstrated that molecular blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody C225 enhances the in vitro radiosensitivity of human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) derived from the head and neck. In the present study, we further investigated the capacity of C225 to modulate the in vitro and in vivo radiation response of human SCC tumor cells and xenografts, and we examined several potential mechanisms that may contribute to the enhanced radiation response induced by C225. Tumor xenograft studies demonstrated complete regression of both newly established (20 mm 3 ) and well-established (100 mm 3 ) SCC tumors over a 55–100 day follow-up period in athymic mice treated with the combination of C225 (i.p. injection) and radiation. Cell cycle analysis via flow cytometry confirmed that combined treatment with C225 and radiation induced an accumulation of cells in the more radiosensitive cell cycle phases (G 1 , G 2 -M) with concurrent reduction in the proportion of cells in the more radioresistant S phase. Results from sublethal damage repair and potentially lethal damage repair analyses in cultured SCC cells demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect of C225 on postradiation damage repair. Further, exposure of SCC cells to C225 induced a redistribution of DNA-dependent protein kinase from the nucleus to the cytosol, suggesting one potential mechanism whereby C225 may influence the cellular response to radiation. Immunohistochemical analysis of SCC tumor xenografts after systemic administration of C225 demonstrated inhibition of the in vivo expression of tumor angiogenesis markers, including vascular endothelial growth factor and Factor VIII. Taken together, the collective data suggest that the profound in vivo antitumor activity identified in the xenograft setting when C225 is combined with radiation derives from more than simply the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of EGFR system inhibition. In addition to antiproliferative growth inhibition, EGFR blockade with C225 appears to influence the capacity of human SCCs to effect DNA repair after exposure to radiation, and to express classic markers of tumor angiogenesis.

563 citations


"Distinctive mucositis and feeding-t..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The use of cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy (BioRT) was implemented after the finding that EGFR is overexpressed in most cases of HNSCC (5,6), and the observation from in vivomodels that this combination enhanced tumor regression compared with radiation or cetuximab alone (7)....

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