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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0SC06696F

Diversified strategy for the synthesis of DNA-encoded oxindole libraries.

04 Mar 2021-Chemical Science (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 12, Iss: 8, pp 2841-2847
Abstract: DNA-encoded library technology (DELT) employs DNA as a barcode to track the sequence of chemical reactions and enables the design and synthesis of libraries with billions of small molecules through combinatorial expansion. This powerful technology platform has been successfully demonstrated for hit identification and target validation for many types of diseases. As a highly integrated technology platform, DEL is capable of accelerating the translation of synthetic chemistry by using on-DNA compatible reactions or off-DNA scaffold synthesis. Herein, we report the development of a series of novel on-DNA transformations based on oxindole scaffolds for the design and synthesis of diversity-oriented DNA-encoded libraries for screening. Specifically, we have developed 1,3-dipolar cyclizations, cyclopropanations, ring-opening of reactions of aziridines and Claisen-Schmidt condensations to construct diverse oxindole derivatives. The majority of these transformations enable a diversity-oriented synthesis of DNA-encoded oxindole libraries which have been used in the successful hit identification for three protein targets. We have demonstrated that a diversified strategy for DEL synthesis could accelerate the application of synthetic chemistry for drug discovery.

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Topics: Oxindole (54%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1SC03007H
14 Jul 2021-Chemical Science
Abstract: DNA encoded libraries (DELs) represent powerful new technology for finding small molecule ligands for proteins and are increasingly being applied to hit finding in medicinal chemistry. Crucial to the synthesis of high quality DELs is the identification of chemical reactions for their assembly that proceed with very high conversion across a range of different substrates, under conditions compatible with DNA-tagged substrates. Many current chemistries used in DEL synthesis do not meet this requirement, resulting in libraries of low fidelity. Amide couplings are the most commonly used reaction in synthesis of screening libraries and also in DELs. The ability to carry out highly efficient, widely applicable amide couplings in DEL synthesis would therefore be highly desirable. We report a method for amide coupling using micelle forming surfactants, promoted by a modified linker, that is broadly applicable across a wide range of substrates. Most significantly, this works exceptionally well for coupling of DNA-conjugated carboxylic acids (N-to-C) with amines in solution, a procedure that is currently very inefficient. The optimisation of separate procedures for coupling of DNA-conjugated acids and amines by reagent screening and statistically driven optimisation is described. The generality of the method is illustrated by the application to a wide range of examples with unprecedented levels of conversion. The utility of the (N-to-C) coupling of DNA-conjugated acids in DEL synthesis is illustrated by the three cycle synthesis of a fully DNA-encoded compound by two cycles of coupling of an aminoester, with intermediate ester hydrolysis, followed by capping with an amine. This methodology will be of great utility in the synthesis of high fidelity DELs.

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Topics: Amide (50%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ORGLETT.1C00924
28 Apr 2021-Organic Letters
Abstract: A highly efficient approach to C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond construction via on-DNA photoredox catalysis between on-DNA alkenes and N-aryl tertiary amines was developed. The methodology demonstrated 55%-95% conversions without obvious DNA damage, as seen by qPCR tests. Furthermore, various functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and aryl halides, that can be used to create library diversities were shown to be tolerant of the C-H activation conditions.

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Topics: Photoredox catalysis (63%), Aryl (55%), Catalysis (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BMC.2021.116218
Abstract: DNA-encoded libraries (DEL) represent a powerful technology for generating compound collections for drug discovery campaigns, that have allowed for the selection of many hit compounds over last three decades. However, the application of split-and-pool combinatorial methodologies, as well as the limitation imposed by DNA-compatible chemistry, has often brought to a limited exploration of the chemical space, with an over-representation of flat aromatic or peptide-like structures, whereas a higher scaffold complexity is generally associated with a more successful biological activity of the library. In this context, the application of Diversity-Oriented Synthesis, capable of creating sp3-rich molecular entities even starting from simple flat building blocks, can represent an efficient strategy to significantly broaden the chemical space explored by DELs. In this review, we present selected examples of DNA-compatible complexity-generating reactions that can be applied for the generation of DNA-encoded DOS libraries, including: (i) multicomponent reactions; (ii) C-H/C-X functionalization; (iii) tandem approaches; (iv) cycloadditions; (v) reactions introducing privileged elements. Also, selected case studies on the generation of DELs with high scaffold diversity are discussed, reporting their application in drug discovery programs.

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Topics: Chemical space (59%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BMCL.2021.128339
Abstract: Over the past decade, DNA-encoded libraries (DELs) have emerged as a leading platform for small molecule drug discovery among pharmaceutical companies, biotech companies and academic drug hunters alike. This revolutionary technology has tremendous potential that is yet to be fully realized, as the exploration of therapeutically relevant chemical space is fueled by the ever-expanding repertoire of DNA-compatible reactions used to construct the libraries. Advances in direct coupling reactions, like photo-catalytic cross couplings, unique cyclizations such as the formation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles, and new functional group transformations are valuable contributions to the DEL reaction toolkit, and indicate where future reaction development efforts should focus in order to maximize the productivity of DELs.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TIPS.2021.10.008
Abstract: The world is totally dependent on medications. As science progresses, new, better, and cheaper drugs are needed more than ever. The pharmaceutical industry has been predominantly dependent on high-throughput screening (HTS) for the past three decades. Considering that the discovery rate has been relatively constant, can one hope for a much-needed sudden trend uptick? DNA-encoded libraries (DELs) and similar technologies, that have several orders of magnitude more screening power than HTS, and that we propose to group together under the umbrella term of high-power screening (HPS), are very well positioned to do exactly that. HPS also offers novel screening options such as parallel screening, ex vivo and in vivo screening, as well as a new path to druggable alternatives such as proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs). Altogether, HPS unlocks novel powerful drug discovery avenues.

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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09504
Panagis Filippakopoulos1, Jun Qi2, Sarah Picaud1, Yao Shen3  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
23 Dec 2010-Nature
Abstract: Epigenetic proteins are intently pursued targets in ligand discovery. So far, successful efforts have been limited to chromatin modifying enzymes, or so-called epigenetic 'writers' and 'erasers'. Potent inhibitors of histone binding modules have not yet been described. Here we report a cell-permeable small molecule (JQ1) that binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition motifs, or bromodomains. High potency and specificity towards a subset of human bromodomains is explained by co-crystal structures with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member BRD4, revealing excellent shape complementarity with the acetyl-lysine binding cavity. Recurrent translocation of BRD4 is observed in a genetically-defined, incurable subtype of human squamous carcinoma. Competitive binding by JQ1 displaces the BRD4 fusion oncoprotein from chromatin, prompting squamous differentiation and specific antiproliferative effects in BRD4-dependent cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models. These data establish proof-of-concept for targeting protein-protein interactions of epigenetic 'readers', and provide a versatile chemical scaffold for the development of chemical probes more broadly throughout the bromodomain family.

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Topics: BET inhibitor (59%), Bromodomain (59%), Squamous carcinoma (57%) ... read more

2,991 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.89.12.5381
Sydney Brenner1, Richard A. Lerner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The diversity of chemical synthesis and the power of genetics are linked to provide a powerful, versatile method for drug screening. A process of alternating parallel combinatorial synthesis is used to encode individual members of a large library of chemicals with unique nucleotide sequences. After the chemical entity is bound to a target, the genetic tag can be amplified by replication and utilized for enrichment of the bound molecules by serial hybridization to a subset of the library. The nature of the chemical structure bound to the receptor is decoded by sequencing the nucleotide tag.

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802 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCHEMBIO.1199
Abstract: Target-identification and mechanism-of-action studies have important roles in small-molecule probe and drug discovery. Biological and technological advances have resulted in the increasing use of cell-based assays to discover new biologically active small molecules. Such studies allow small-molecule action to be tested in a more disease-relevant setting at the outset, but they require follow-up studies to determine the precise protein target or targets responsible for the observed phenotype. Target identification can be approached by direct biochemical methods, genetic interactions or computational inference. In many cases, however, combinations of approaches may be required to fully characterize on-target and off-target effects and to understand mechanisms of small-molecule action.

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Topics: Drug discovery (54%)

636 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADSC.201200808
Liang Hong1, Rui Wang2, Rui Wang1Institutions (2)
Abstract: The asymmetric organocatalysis is definitely one of the most powerful and versatile tools for the rapid construction of various spirocyclic oxindoles. In the past few years, a number of successful strategies based on organocatalysis have been developed for the construction of 3,3′-spirocyclic oxindoles in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities under mild conditions. In this review, recent advances in this area are summarized and classified according to the spiro ring fused at the 3-position of the oxindole core.

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578 Citations


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