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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-467

Diversity-oriented synthesis and activity evaluation of substituted bicyclic lactams as anti-malarial against Plasmodium falciparum.

28 Nov 2014-Malaria Journal (BioMed Central)-Vol. 13, Iss: 1, pp 467-467
Abstract: Background: Malaria remains the world’s most important devastating parasitic disease. Of the five species of Plasmodium known to infect and cause human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum is the most virulent and responsible for majority of the deaths caused by this disease. Mainstream drug therapy targets the asexual blood stage of the malaria parasite, as the disease symptoms are mainly associated with this stage. The prevalence of malaria parasite strains resistance to existing anti-malarial drugs has made the control of malaria even more challenging and hence the development of a new class of drugs is inevitable. Methods: Screening against different drug resistant and sensitive strains of P. falciparum was performed for few bicyclic lactam-based motifs, exhibiting a broad spectrum of activity with low toxicity generated via a focussed library obtained from diversity oriented synthesis (DOS). The synthesis and screening was followed by an in vitro assessment of the possible cytotoxic effect of this class of compounds on malaria parasite. Results: The central scaffold a chiral bicyclic lactam (A) and (A’) which were synthesized from (R)-phenylalaninol, levulinic acid and 3-(2-nitrophenyl) levulinic acid respectively. The DOS library was generated from A and from A’, by either direct substitution with o-nitrobenzylbromide at the carbon α- to the amide functionality or by conversion to fused pyrroloquinolines. Upon screening this diverse library for their anti-malarial activity, a dinitro/diamine substituted bicyclic lactam was found to demonstrate exceptional activity of >85% inhibition at 50 μM concentration across different strains of P. falciparum with no toxicity against mammalian cells. Also, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial functionality and apoptosis was observed in parasite treated with diamine-substituted bicyclic lactams. Conclusions: This study unveils a DOS-mediated exploration of small molecules with novel structural motifs that culminates in identifying a potential lead molecule against malaria. In vitro investigations further reveal their cytocidal effect on malaria parasite growth. It is not the first time that DOS has been used as a strategy to identify therapeutic leads against malaria, but this study establishes the direct implications of DOS in scouting novel motifs with anti-malarial activity.

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Topics: Plasmodium falciparum (61%), Malaria (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHOM.2016.10.015
Abstract: Surface-associated TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) family proteins are conserved across the phylum of apicomplexan parasites. TRAP proteins are thought to play an integral role in parasite motility and cell invasion by linking the extracellular environment with the parasite submembrane actomyosin motor. Blood stage forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium express a TRAP family protein called merozoite-TRAP (MTRAP) that has been implicated in erythrocyte invasion. Using MTRAP-deficient mutants of the rodent-infecting P. berghei and human-infecting P. falciparum parasites, we show that MTRAP is dispensable for erythrocyte invasion. Instead, MTRAP is essential for gamete egress from erythrocytes, where it is necessary for the disruption of the gamete-containing parasitophorous vacuole membrane, and thus for parasite transmission to mosquitoes. This indicates that motor-binding TRAP family members function not just in parasite motility and cell invasion but also in membrane disruption and cell egress.

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Topics: Gliding motility (51%), Actin cytoskeleton (50%)

42 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CMDC.201500429
Nuno A. L. Pereira1, Ângelo Monteiro1, Marta Machado2, Jiri Gut3  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
03 Nov 2015-ChemMedChem
Abstract: Malaria continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality to this day, and resistance to drugs like chloroquine has led to an urgent need to discover novel chemical entities aimed at new targets. Here, we report the discovery of a novel class of potential antimalarial compounds containing an indolizinoindolone scaffold. These novel enantiopure indolizinoindolones were synthesized, in good-to-excellent yields and excellent diastereoselectivities, by cyclocondensation reaction of (S)- or (R)-tryptophanol and 2-acyl benzoic acids, followed by intramolecular α-amidoalkylation. Interestingly, we were able to synthesize for the first time 7,13b-cis indolizinoindolones in a two-step route. The novel compounds showed promising activity against erythrocytic stages of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and liver stages of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. In particular, an (S)-tryptophanol-derived isoindolinone was identified as a promising starting scaffold to search for novel antimalarials, combining excellent activity against both stages of the parasite's life cycle with low cytotoxicity and excellent metabolic and chemical stability in vitro.

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Topics: Plasmodium berghei (59%), Plasmodium falciparum (56%), Chloroquine (52%)

20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-54339-Z
Poonam Dangi1, Ravi Jain1, Rajanikanth Mamidala, Vijeta Sharma1  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
28 Nov 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Natural products offer an abundant source of diverse novel scaffolds that inspires development of next generation anti-malarials. With this vision, a library of scaffolds inspired by natural biologically active alkaloids was synthesized from chiral bicyclic lactams with steps/scaffold ratio of 1.7:1. On evaluation of library of scaffolds for their growth inhibitory effect against malaria parasite we found one scaffold with IC50 in low micro molar range. It inhibited parasite growth via disruption of Na+ homeostasis. P-type ATPase, PfATP4 is responsible for maintaining parasite Na+ homeostasis and is a good target for anti-malarials. Molecular docking with our scaffold showed that it fits well in the binding pocket of PfATP4. Moreover, inhibition of Na+-dependent ATPase activity by our potent scaffold suggests that it targets parasite by inhibiting PfATP4, leading to ionic imbalance. However how ionic imbalance attributes to parasite's death is unclear. We show that ionic imbalance caused by scaffold 7 induces autophagy that leads to onset of apoptosis in the parasite evident by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and DNA degradation. Our study provides a novel strategy for drug discovery and an insight into the molecular mechanism of ionic imbalance mediated death in malaria parasite.

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9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11010-018-3458-X
Naveen Kumar1, Nisha Yadav1, Nagarjuna Amarnath1, Vijeta Sharma1  +9 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Natural products from medicinal plants have always attracted a lot of attention due to their diverse and interesting therapeutic properties. We have employed the principles of green chemistry involving isomerization, coupling and condensation reaction to synthesize a class of compounds derived from eugenol, a naturally occurring bioactive phytophenol. The compounds were characterized structurally by 1H-, 13C-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. The purity of compounds was detected by HPLC. The synthesized compounds exhibited anti-cancer activity. A 10–12-fold enhancement in efficiency of drug molecules (~ 1 µM) was observed when delivered with graphene oxide (GO) as a nanovehicle. Our data suggest cell death via apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner due to increase in calcium levels in specific cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the benzoxazine derivatives of eugenol with GO nanoparticle exhibited enhanced therapeutic potential in cancer cells. In addition to anti-cancer effect, we also observed significant role of these derivatives on parasite suggesting its multi-pharmacological capability.

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7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07388551.2021.1939261
Mingyue Zhang1, Nan Wang1, Nan Wang2, Jianguo Liu1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Levulinic acid (LEV) has been identified as a key building block chemical produced entirely from biomass. Its derivatives can be used to synthesize a variety of value-added chemicals, such as 2-but...

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Topics: Levulinic acid (67%)

1 Citations

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4
Abstract: A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.

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Topics: MTT assay (59%), Chemosensitivity assay (52%), Cytotoxicity (50%)

46,508 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.781840
William Trager1, James B. Jensen1Institutions (1)
20 Aug 1976-Science
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum can now be maintained in continuous culture in human erythrocytes incubated at 38 degrees C in RPMI 1640 medium with human serum under an atmosphere with 7 percent carbon dioxide and low oxygen (1 or 5 percent). The original parasite material, derived from an infected Aotus trivirgatus monkey, was diluted more than 100 million times by the addition of human erythrocytes at 3- or 4-day intervals. The parasites continued to reproduce in their normal asexual cycle of approximately 48 hours but were no longer highly synchronous. The have remained infective to Aotus.

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Topics: Malaria culture (56%), Aotus trivirgatus (55%), Blood serum (52%)

7,085 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2005-
Topics: Malaria (68%), Indoor residual spraying (55%)

4,964 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.287.5460.1964
Stuart L. Schreiber1Institutions (1)
17 Mar 2000-Science
Abstract: Modern drug discovery often involves screening small molecules for their ability to bind to a preselected protein target. Target-oriented syntheses of these small molecules, individually or as collections (focused libraries), can be planned effectively with retrosynthetic analysis. Drug discovery can also involve screening small molecules for their ability to modulate a biological pathway in cells or organisms, without regard for any particular protein target. This process is likely to benefit in the future from an evolving forward analysis of synthetic pathways, used in diversity-oriented synthesis, that leads to structurally complex and diverse small molecules. One goal of diversity-oriented syntheses is to synthesize efficiently a collection of small molecules capable of perturbing any disease-related biological pathway, leading eventually to the identification of therapeutic protein targets capable of being modulated by small molecules. Several synthetic planning principles for diversity-oriented synthesis and their role in the drug discovery process are presented in this review.

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Topics: Reverse pharmacology (64%), Druggability (63%), Drug design (60%) ...read more

2,115 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.94.2.514
Abstract: A significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Several studies have suggested that mtDNA may accumulate more oxidative DNA damage relative to nuclear DNA. This study used quantitative PCR to examine the formation and repair of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in a 16.2-kb mitochondrial fragment and a 17.7-kb fragment flanking the β-globin gene. Simian virus 40-transformed fibroblasts treated with 200 μM hydrogen peroxide for 15 or 60 min exhibited 3-fold more damage to the mitochondrial genome compared with the nuclear fragment. Following a 60-min treatment, damage to the nuclear fragment was completely repaired within 1.5 hr, whereas no DNA repair in the mitochondrion was observed. Mitochondrial function, as assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction, also showed a sharp decline. These cells displayed arrested-cell growth, large increases in p21 protein levels, and morphological changes consistent with apoptosis. In contrast, when hydrogen peroxide treatments were limited to 15 min, mtDNA damage was repaired with similar kinetics as the nuclear fragment, mitochondrial function was restored, and cells resumed division within 12 hr. These results indicate that mtDNA is a critical cellular target for ROS. A model is presented in which chronic ROS exposure, found in several degenerative diseases associated with aging, leads to decreased mitochondrial function, increased mitochondrial-generated ROS, and persistent mitochondrial DNA damage. Thus persistent mitochondrial DNA damage may serve as a useful biomarker for ROS-associated diseases.

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Topics: Mitochondrial DNA repair (70%), DNA damage (65%), Mitochondrial DNA (61%) ...read more

1,604 Citations