Does excessive adenosine 5′-triphosphate formation in cells lead to malignancy? A hypothesis on cancer
01 Jun 1997-Medical Hypotheses (Elsevier)-Vol. 48, Iss: 6, pp 473-476
TL;DR: This work has suggested that mitochondrial complex I and the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) may be critically altered specifically in malignant cells and it is proposed that this excessive ATP formation may be due to altered mitochondrialcomplex I and GA3PD ofmalignant cells.
Abstract: In biological systems, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principal contributor of free energy necessary for anabolic reactions and is also a precursor of nucleic acids. Moreover, active transport of metabolites into cells is also driven by hydrolysis of ATP. So, a cell may grow, multiply and ultimately turn malignant when it has been transformed in such a manner that it produces excess ATP as compared with its usual metabolic demand. Recent studies have indicated that mitochondrial complex I and the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) may be critically altered specifically in malignant cells. So, we further propose that this excessive ATP formation may be due to altered mitochondrial complex I and GA3PD of malignant cells.
TL;DR: This review is aimed at providing readers with a comprehensive reference article about the distribution and function of P2 receptors in all the organs, tissues, and cells in the body.
Abstract: This review is aimed at providing readers with a comprehensive reference article about the distribution and function of P2 receptors in all the organs, tissues, and cells in the body. Each section provides an account of the early history of purinergic signaling in the organ/cell up to 1994, then summarizes subsequent evidence for the presence of P2X and P2Y receptor subtype mRNA and proteins as well as functional data, all fully referenced. A section is included describing the plasticity of expression of P2 receptors during development and aging as well as in various pathophysiological conditions. Finally, there is some discussion of possible future developments in the purinergic signaling field.
TL;DR: A metabolic shift characterized by suppression of OXPHOS combined with activation of aerobic glycolysis as the main pathway for ATP synthesis (Warburg effect) is of central importance to avoid CED and to control the cellular redox state, thereby ensuring the cell survival.
Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of almost all diseases. Acquired or inherited mutations of the mitochondrial genome DNA may give rise to mitochondrial diseases. Another class of disorders, in which mitochondrial impairments are initiated by extramitochondrial factors, includes neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes resulting from typical pathological processes, such as hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, intoxications, and carcinogenesis. Both classes of diseases lead to cellular energetic depression (CED), which is characterized by decreased cytosolic phosphorylation potential that suppresses the cell’s ability to do work and control the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and its redox state. If progressing, CED leads to cell death, whose type is linked to the functional status of the mitochondria. In the case of limited deterioration, when some amounts of ATP can still be generated due to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria launch the apoptotic cell death program by release of cytochrome c. Following pronounced CED, cytoplasmic ATP levels fall below the thresholds required for processing the ATP-dependent apoptotic cascade and the cell dies from necrosis. Both types of death can be grouped together as a mitochondrial cell death (MCD). However, there exist multiple adaptive reactions aimed at protecting cells against CED. In this context, a metabolic shift characterized by suppression of OXPHOS combined with activation of aerobic glycolysis as the main pathway for ATP synthesis (Warburg effect) is of central importance. Whereas this type of adaptation is sufficiently effective to avoid CED and to control the cellular redox state, thereby ensuring the cell survival, it also favors the avoidance of apoptotic cell death. This scenario may underlie uncontrolled cellular proliferation and growth, eventually resulting in carcinogenesis.
TL;DR: The potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.
Abstract: In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.
TL;DR: Corpus dominant atrophic gastritis is characterized by decreased respiratory capacity and relative deficiency of the respiratory complex I of mitochondria in the mucosa, the latter defect probably limiting mitochondrial ATP production and energetic support of the secretory function of the zymogenic mucosal cells.
Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the most characteristic properties of the cancer cell. However, it is not known whether oxidative energy metabolism has already become altered in conditions of atrophic gastritis, a precancerous state of gastric disease. The purpose of our study was to comparatively characterize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the atrophic and nonatrophic gastric corpus mucosa. Mucosal biopsies were taken from 12 patients with corpus dominant atrophic gastritis and from 12 patients with nonatrophic mucosa (controls). One part of the tissue samples was permeabilized with saponin for analysis of the function of the respiratory chain using high-resolution respirometry, and another part was used for histopathological examination. The serum level of pepsinogen I (S-PGI) was determined with a specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Compared to the control group, the maximal capacity of OXPHOS in the atrophy group was almost twofold lower, the respiratory chain complex I-dependent respiration, normalized to complex II-dependent respiration, was reduced, and respiratory control by ADP in the presence of succinate was increased in the atrophic corpus mucosa. In the whole cohort of the patients studied, serum S-PGI level correlated positively with complex I-dependent respiration or complex Idependent to complex II-dependent respiration ratio. Corpus dominant atrophic gastritis is characterized by decreased respiratory capacity and relative deficiency of the respiratory complex I of mitochondria in the mucosa, the latter defect probably limiting mitochondrial ATP production and energetic support of the secretory function of the zymogenic mucosal cells.
TL;DR: The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer morphogenesis is clarified and it is elucidated how faulty morphogen gradient signaling and inflammatory mediators that regulate OXPHOS can cause cancer-induced morphogenesis.
Abstract: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required for normal cell metabolism is mainly supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which is limited by available oxygen and modulated by cell signaling pathways. Primary or secondary OXPHOS failure shifts cell metabolism towards ATP generation by glycolysis (Warburg effect). The objective of this paper is to clarify the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer morphogenesis and to elucidate how faulty morphogen gradient signaling and inflammatory mediators that regulate OXPHOS can cause cancer-induced morphogenesis. Developmental morphogenesis and cancer morphogenesis are regulated by morphogenetic fields. The importance of morphogenetic fields is illustrated by transplantation of metastatic melanoma cells into the chick-embryo; the tumor cells adapt morphologies that resemble normal cells and function normally in the host. A morphogen gradient is a simple form of morphogenetic field. Morphogens such as those of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family inhibit and stimulate basic cell proliferation at high and low concentrations respectively. Along a signaling gradient of declining TGF-beta concentration, with increasing distance from the gradient source, cell proliferation is first gradually less inhibited, and then gradually stimulated, thus generating a concave curved structure. In 3D cell cultures, TGF-beta concentration determines the diameter of the tubules it induces. TGF-beta1 can modulate mitochondrial OXPHOS via adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) or uncoupling protein (UCP) via COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2. Thus, gradients of TGF-beta can regulate the radius of curvature of tissues by modulating mitochondrial ATP generation. Derailment of morphogen control of mitochondrial ATP synthesis can lead to abnormal spatial variation in ATP supply, abnormal spatial distribution of cell proliferation, and cancer morphogenesis. Involvement of COX-2 in morphogen signaling is a mechanism whereby inflammation can promote carcinogenesis. Restoration of OXPHOS can reverse cancer morphogenesis and restore normal tissue morphology. Avoiding exposure to environmental mitochondrial toxins and toxic food ingredients should reduce the risk of cancer.
01 Jan 1937
TL;DR: The third edition, coming ten years after the first, emphasizes both the flowering of biochemical research and the prodigious effort by busy teachers and scientists to keep up to date this popular text and reference.
Abstract: Principles of biochemistry , Principles of biochemistry , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی
01 Jan 1970
TL;DR: The long-awaited Fifth Edition of James D. Watson's classic text, Molecular Biology of the Gene, has been thoroughly revised and is published to coincide with the 50th anniversary of Watson and Crick's paper on the structure of the DNA double-helix as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The long-awaited Fifth Edition of James D. Watson's classic text, Molecular Biology of the Gene, has been thoroughly revised and is published to coincide with the 50th anniversary of Watson and Crick's paper on the structure of the DNA double-helix. Though completely updated, the new edition retains the distinctive character of earlier editions that made it the most widely used book in molecular biology. Twenty-one concise chapters, co-authored by five highly respected molecular biologists, provide current, authoritative coverage of a fast-changing discipline. The completely new art is printed in full color for the first time. Divided into five parts, the first (Chemistry and Genetics) begins with an overview of molecular biology, placing the discipline in historical context and introducing the basic chemical concepts that underpin our description of molecular biology today. The second and third parts (Maintenance of the Genome and Expression of the Genome) form the heart of the book, describing in detail the basic mechanisms of DNA replication, transcription and translation. The fourth part of the book (Regulation) deals with how gene expression is regulated - from the examination of basic mechanisms that regulate gene expression in bacterial and eukaryotic systems, to a description of how regulation of gene expression lies at the heart of the process of development. Recent findings from sequencing whole genomes of several animals have revealed that they all share essentially the same genes. The last chapter in the regulation section looks at how changes in gene regulation can account for how different animals can be made up of the same genes. The final part of the book (Methods) deals with the techniques and methods used in molecular biology.
TL;DR: The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxo-glutarate and malate plus pyruvate-dependent respiration, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methyl glyoxal fails to inhibit succinate- dependent respiration.
Abstract: The effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption of Ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma (EAC)-cell mitochondria was tested by using different respiratory substrates, electron donors at different segments of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and site-specific inhibitors to identify the specific respiratory complex which might be involved in the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal on the oxygen consumption by these cells. The results indicate that methylglyoxal strongly inhibits ADP-stimulated alpha-oxo-glutarate and malate plus pyruvate-dependent respiration, whereas, at a much higher concentration, methylglyoxal fails to inhibit succinate-dependent respiration. Methylglyoxal also fails to inhibit respiration which is initiated by duroquinol, an artificial electron donor. Moreover, methylglyoxal cannot inhibit oxygen consumption when the NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine by-pass is used. The inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is identical on both ADP-stimulated and uncoupler-stimulated respiration. Lactaldehyde, a catabolite of methylglyoxal, can exert a protective effect on the inhibition of EAC-cell mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal. We suggest that methylglyoxal possibly inhibits the electron flow through complex I of the EAC-cell mitochondrial respiratory chain.
TL;DR: Study reported herein strongly suggest that the tumoricidal effect of MG is mediated at least in part through the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and inactivation of GA3PD, and this enzyme may play an important role in the high glycolytic capacity of the malignant cells.
Abstract: The effect of methylglyoxal (MG) on the aerobic glycolysis of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells has been tested. Methylglyoxal inhibited glucose utilization and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) and L-lactate formation in whole EAC cells. Methylglyoxal strongly inactivated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) of the malignant cells, whereas MG has little inactivating effect on this enzyme from several normal sources. Methylglyoxal also inactivated only the participate hexominase of the EAC cells, but this inactivation was less pronounced than the effect on GA3PD. Methylglyoxal has little inactivating effect on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and no effect on L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the malignant cells. Glucose-dependent L-lactic acid formation of EAC-cell-free homogenate was strongly inhibited by MG, but when GA3PD of normal cells was added to this homogenate, significant lactate formation was observed even in the presence of MG. Methylglyoxal also inhibited the respiration of EAC-cell mitochondria. Respiration of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of normal mice, however, remained unaffected. As a consequence of the inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, the ATp level of the EAC cells was drastically reduced. Studies reported herein strongly suggest that the tumoricidal effect of MG is mediated at least in part through the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and inactivation of GA3PD, and this enzyme may play an important role in the high glycolytic capacity of the malignant cells.