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Journal ArticleDOI

Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae.

01 Jul 2009-Veterinary Research (EDP Sciences)-Vol. 40, Iss: 4, pp 27-27

TL;DR: It is suggested that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs, that was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites.

AbstractBartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5-7 weeks, with a peak of 10 3 -10 4 colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6-8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs. Bartonella rochalimae / dogs / cats / guinea pigs / zoonosis

Topics: Bartonella rochalimae (64%), Bartonella (54%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella are compiled and their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients is discussed, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease.
Abstract: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease.

191 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals.
Abstract: Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals.

95 citations


Cites background from "Dogs are more permissive than cats ..."

  • ...Experimental infections of different mammalian hosts by a given Bartonella strain have reproduced the species-specificity of erythrocyte invasion as observed in natural infections [11,13,14,15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability of Bartonella spp.
Abstract: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that typically cause a long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia in their mammalian reservoir hosts, thereby favoring transmission by blood-sucking arthropods. In most cases, natural reservoir host infections are subclinical and the relapsing intraerythrocytic bacteremia may last weeks, months, or even years. In this review, we will follow the infection cycle of Bartonella spp. in a reservoir host, which typically starts with an intradermal inoculation of bacteria that are superficially scratched into the skin from arthropod feces and terminates with the pathogen exit by the blood-sucking arthropod. The current knowledge of bacterial countermeasures against mammalian immune response will be presented for each critical step of the pathogenesis. The prevailing models of the still-enigmatic primary niche and the anatomical location where bacteria reside, persist, and are periodically seeded into the bloodstream to cause the typical relapsing Bartonella spp. bacteremia will also be critically discussed. The review will end up with a discussion of the ability of Bartonella spp., namely Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Bartonella bacilliformis, to induce tumor-like vascular deformations in humans having compromised immune response such as in patients with AIDS.

91 citations


Cites background from "Dogs are more permissive than cats ..."

  • ...…Marié et al., 2006; Telfer et al., 2007) Bartonella doshiae, (Bermond et al., 2000; Engbaek & Lawson, 2004; Reis et al., 2011) Bartonella birtlesii, (Chomel et al., 2009b; Gabriel et al., 2009; Henn et al., 2009; Schaefer et al., 2011) Bartonella rochalimae, (Lin et al., 2008; Engel et al.,…...

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  • ...1) (Chomel et al., 2009b)....

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  • ...This review will focus on the current knowledge of mammalian host– Bartonella spp. interaction and excludes the arthropod host–Bartonella spp. interaction, which has recently been reviewed (Chomel et al., 2009b)....

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  • ...When an infected arthropod comes into contact with an uninfected reservoir host, direct blood contact or intra-/subcutaneous inoculation through arthropod bite might take place, but the highest bacterial numbers are expected to be inoculated via arthropod feces (Chomel et al., 2009b)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens, highlighting the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment.
Abstract: Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens Furthermore, our study highlights the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment

90 citations


Cites background from "Dogs are more permissive than cats ..."

  • ...Further support for the host specific adaptation of different Bartonella species comes from recently published laboratory infections [39,40] and from our own rat infection experiments with the strains of lineage 3 (Figure S3)....

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  • ...Additionally, a recent study showed that Br is reliably infecting dogs, its natural reservoir host, but neither cats nor guinea pigs [39]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Bartonella species are discussed, detected using several methods and antibiotic treatment recommendations for the different infections, treatment failure and the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance in these bacteria are discussed.
Abstract: Bartonella species, which belong to the α-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria, are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are highly adapted to their mammalian host reservoirs. Bartonella species are responsible for different clinical conditions affecting humans, including Carrion's disease, cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis and peliosis hepatis. While some of these diseases can resolve spontaneously without treatment, in other cases, the disease is fatal without antibiotic treatment. In this article, we discuss the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Bartonella species, detected using several methods. We also provide an overview of Bartonella infection in humans and animals and discuss the antibiotic treatment recommendations for the different infections, treatment failure and the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance in these bacteria.

45 citations


Cites background from "Dogs are more permissive than cats ..."

  • ...rochalimae exhibited no clinical signs of infection [26,27]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pets represent a large reservoir for human infection and can be a source of infection for humans and animals alike.
Abstract: Among the many mammals infected with Bartonella spp., pets represent a large reservoir for human infection because most Bartonella spp. infecting them are zoonotic. Cats are the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. koehlerae. Dogs can be infected with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. washoensis, B. elizabethae, and B. quintana. The role of dogs as an important reservoir of Bartonella spp. is less clear than for cats because domestic dogs are more likely to be accidental hosts, at least in nontropical regions. Nevertheless, dogs are excellent sentinels for human infections because a similar disease spectrum develops in dogs. Transmission of B. henselae by cat fleas is better understood, although new potential vectors (ticks and biting flies) have been identified. We review current knowledge on the etiologic agents, clinical features, and epidemiologic characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

352 citations


"Dogs are more permissive than cats ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...clarridgeiae, a species for which cats are the natural reservoir [6]....

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  • ...In the subsequent ten years after recognition of this organism in domestic dogs, six other species of Bartonella were identified in dogs, in association with various clinical manifestations [6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: P phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate indicated that this organism, which can induce endocarditis in dogs, is a novel Bartonella subspecies containing an insertion sequence unique among currently recognized Bart onella species.
Abstract: Vegetative valvular endocarditis involving the aortic and, to a lesser extent, mitral valves was diagnosed echocardiographically in a 3-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever. Historically, the dog had been treated with tetracycline hydrochloride and prednisolone for positive seroreactivity to Ehrlichia canis and antinuclear antigens. Although three aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures failed to grow bacteria, blood cultured simultaneously by the lysis centrifugation technique grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism. Despite an initial therapeutic response, the owner elected euthanasia 17 days later. Necropsy confirmed aortic and mitral valvular endocarditis. Bacteria phenotypically similar to Bartonella species were visualized in the heart valve by light and electron microscopy, and Bartonella DNA from a frozen heart valve was amplified by PCR. Subsequent phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including biochemical testing, cellular fatty acid analysis, DNA hybridization, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this organism, which can induce endocarditis in dogs, is a novel Bartonella subspecies containing an insertion sequence unique among currently recognized Bartonella species. The name Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkoffii subsp. nov. will be proposed for this organism.

197 citations


"Dogs are more permissive than cats ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...berkhoffii), was isolated from a dog with vegetative valvular endocarditis [3]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A patient who had fever and splenomegaly after traveling to Peru and also had bacteremia from an organism that resembled Bartonella bacilliformis was described, which revealed that this fastidious bacterium represented a previously uncultured and unnamed bartonella species.
Abstract: Bartonella species cause serious human infections globally, including bacillary angiomatosis, Oroya fever, trench fever, and endocarditis. We describe a patient who had fever and splenomegaly after traveling to Peru and also had bacteremia from an organism that resembled Bartonella bacilliformis, the causative agent of Oroya fever, which is endemic to Peru. However, genetic analyses revealed that this fastidious bacterium represented a previously uncultured and unnamed bartonella species, closely related to B. clarridgeiae and more distantly related to B. bacilliformis. We characterized this isolate, including its ability to cause fever and sustained bacteremia in a rhesus macaque. The route of infection and burden of human disease associated with this newly described pathogen are currently unknown.

180 citations


"Dogs are more permissive than cats ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...rochalimae [9] was identified in a Pulex flea collected on a human in Cuzco, Peru, based on the sequence of a fragment of the intergenic spacer region (ITS) [20]....

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  • ...Furthermore, guinea pigs are commonly infested by Pulex simulans fleas that will feed readily on humans, and a Bartonella species nearly identical to the human isolate of B. rochalimae [9] was identified in a Pulex flea collected on a human in Cuzco, Peru, based on the sequence of a fragment of the intergenic spacer region (ITS) [20]....

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  • ...Because exposure to B. rochalimae likely occurred when the American woman tourist was traveling in Peru, we sought to identify which of the domestic animals usually present in traditional rural Peruvian households, i.e. dogs, cats and guinea pigs, could serve as a permissive reservoir host for B. rochalimae, using experimental inoculation of animals with the only human isolate available worldwide [9]....

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  • ...Even though the American tourist denied exposure to cats during her trip to Peru [9], and pet cats are not as common as dogs in traditional rural Peruvian households, it was nevertheless important to investigate the susceptibility of cats to this human strain, because B. rochalimae is most closely related genetically to B. clarridgeiae, a species for which cats are the natural reservoir [6]....

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  • ...To date, isolates of this new Bartonella species have been cultured from mammals in the new world, including from a human who traveled to South America [9], and from gray foxes, raccoons, coyotes and domestic dogs in California [11, 12]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These studies indicate that B. henselae exists in an almost perfect host-parasite relationship with its feline host, but that most cats can ultimately rid themselves of the infection.
Abstract: Domestic cats were experimentally infected with culture propagated Bartonella henselae by intradermal (i.d.) and intravenous (i.v.) routes. Cats were more efficiently infected by the i.d. (8/8 cats) than by the i.v. (2/16) route. Bacteremia was detected 1-3 weeks following inoculation and lasted for most cats for 1-8 months. However, one naturally infected cat was observed for 24 months and was found to be cyclically bacteremic, with bacterial levels varying one hundred fold or more from one period to another. No clinical or hematologic abnormalities were observed in any of the infected cats, even at the peak of bacteremia. Two cats that had become abacteremic were resistant to reinfection when inoculated with B. henselae a second time. Horizontal transmission through intimate contact between bacteremic and susceptible cats did not occur, and antibody positive bacteremic queens did not transmit the infection to their kittens in utero, peri-partum or post-partum. Only four of the 18 kittens acquired detectable levels of maternal antibody following nursing, which disappeared by 6 weeks of age. These studies indicate that B. henselae exists in an almost perfect host-parasite relationship with its feline host, but that most cats can ultimately rid themselves of the infection. The susceptibility of cats to intradermal infection and the lack of direct cat-cat transmission are compatible with possible arthropod vectors.

149 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined and fleas were collected from mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt.
Abstract: Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. Between July 2002 and July 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt. A total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were X. cheopis from rats (Rattus spp.). Fleas were tested for DNA from Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia pestis. Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats from nine cities. A spotted-fever group Rickettsia sp. similar to "RF2125" was detected in E. gallinacea, and two unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in two X. cheopis. Novel Bartonella genotypes were detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from three cities. Coxiella burnetii was detected in two fleas. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Y. pestis were not detected.

135 citations